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Biotypes of major depressive disorder: Neuroimaging evidence from resting-state default mode network patterns.

Thu, 01/07/2021 - 06:45
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Biotypes of major depressive disorder: Neuroimaging evidence from resting-state default mode network patterns.

Neuroimage Clin. 2020;28:102514

Authors: Liang S, Deng W, Li X, Greenshaw AJ, Wang Q, Li M, Ma X, Bai TJ, Bo QJ, Cao J, Chen GM, Chen W, Cheng C, Cheng YQ, Cui XL, Duan J, Fang YR, Gong QY, Guo WB, Hou ZH, Hu L, Kuang L, Li F, Li KM, Liu YS, Liu ZN, Long YC, Luo QH, Meng HQ, Peng DH, Qiu HT, Qiu J, Shen YD, Shi YS, Si TM, Wang CY, Wang F, Wang K, Wang L, Wang X, Wang Y, Wu XP, Wu XR, Xie CM, Xie GR, Xie HY, Xie P, Xu XF, Yang H, Yang J, Yu H, Yao JS, Yao SQ, Yin YY, Yuan YG, Zang YF, Zhang AX, Zhang H, Zhang KR, Zhang ZJ, Zhao JP, Zhou RB, Zhou YT, Zou CJ, Zuo XN, Yan CG, Li T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is heterogeneous disorder associated with aberrant functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). This study focused on data-driven identification and validation of potential DMN-pattern-based MDD subtypes to parse heterogeneity of the disorder.
METHODS: The sample comprised 1397 participants including 690 patients with MDD and 707 healthy controls (HC) registered from multiple sites based on the REST-meta-MDD Project in China. Baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was recorded for each participant. Discriminative features were selected from DMN between patients and HC. Patient subgroups were defined by K-means and principle component analysis in the multi-site datasets and validated in an independent single-site dataset. Statistical significance of resultant clustering were confirmed. Demographic and clinical variables were compared between identified patient subgroups.
RESULTS: Two MDD subgroups with differing functional connectivity profiles of DMN were identified in the multi-site datasets, and relatively stable in different validation samples. The predominant dysfunctional connectivity profiles were detected among superior frontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, whereas one subgroup exhibited increases of connectivity (hyperDMN MDD) and another subgroup showed decreases of connectivity (hypoDMN MDD). The hyperDMN subgroup in the discovery dataset had age-related severity of depressive symptoms. Patient subgroups had comparable demographic and clinical symptom variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest the existence of two neural subtypes of MDD associated with different dysfunctional DMN connectivity patterns, which may provide useful evidence for parsing heterogeneity of depression and be valuable to inform the search for personalized treatment strategies.

PMID: 33396001 [PubMed - in process]

Frequency-Specific Regional Homogeneity Alterations in Tourette Syndrome.

Wed, 01/06/2021 - 06:44
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Frequency-Specific Regional Homogeneity Alterations in Tourette Syndrome.

Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:543049

Authors: Lou YT, Li XL, Wang Y, Ji GJ, Zang YF, Wang J, Feng JH

Abstract
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder with onset during childhood. Because of its complex spectrum of phenotypes, the underlying pathophysiology of TS is still unclear. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated aberrant spontaneous neural synchronization in conventional frequency band (0.01-0.08 Hz) in TS. No published studies have reported abnormalities of local synchronization across different frequency bands. We estimated the alterations of local synchronization across five bands ranging from 0 to 0.25 Hz. Seventy-nine children with TS and 63 age-, sex-, and handedness-matched healthy children were recruited. Frequency-specific regional homogeneity (ReHo) and independent component analysis were used to identify functional alterations between TS and healthy children. TS patients showed significantly increased ReHo in the left precentral gyrus and decreased ReHo in the right operculum. Abnormal ReHo alterations of the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, putamen, superior temporal gyrus, and operculum were observed in different frequency bands. TS patients showed increased connectivity of the right superior frontal gyrus within the left executive control network. In addition, a significantly negative correlation was found between Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) vocal score and ReHo values of the right operculum in the highest frequency bands (0.198-0.25 Hz), while a significant positive correlation was found between YGTSS motor score and altered connectivity of the right superior frontal gyrus. The present study revealed frequency-specific abnormal alterations of ReHo in the whole brain and altered connectivity within the executive control network of TS children. Its neural importance and clinical practicability require further investigation.

PMID: 33391040 [PubMed]

MiR-19-3p Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis via Targeting FAS in Rectal Cancer Cells.

Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:10
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MiR-19-3p Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis via Targeting FAS in Rectal Cancer Cells.

Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820917978

Authors: Su YF, Zang YF, Wang YH, Ding YL

Abstract
MicroRNAs are reported as a vital important factor in cancer cell initiation and progression processes. MicroRNA-19-3p has drawn the attention of many researchers in recent years because of its wide expression and its key role in serious kinds of tumor cells. However, the detailed mechanism of microRNA-19a-3p in these tumors is still poorly understood. So, in the present study, we aimed to explore the biological function and potential molecular mechanism of microRNA-19a-3p in different cancer cells. We first detect the relative level of miR-19a-3p in cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to normal cells and tissues. Results indicated the messenger RNA expression of microRNA-19a-3p existing in an aberrant low level in cancer cells and tissues. The overexpression of microRNA-19a-3p significantly reduced the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion ability in HCT116 cells. In addition to this, increased microRNA-19a-3p could induce cell apoptosis via promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, whereas inhibition of microRNA-19a-3p exhibited an opposite effect. Moreover, we predicated the target genes and the binding sites of microRNA-19a-3p and confirmed FAS as the targeting of microRNA-19a-3p through luciferase activity assay. Taken together, these results indicated that microRNA-19a-3p overexpression inhibited HCT116 cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell apoptosis, and ROS accumulation via FAS targeting effect. It was conceivable that microRNA-19a-3p might serve as a potential molecular target for breast and liver cancer treatment.

PMID: 32266860 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Differences in Cortical Gray Matter Atrophy of Paraplegia and Tetraplegia after Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

Sun, 10/11/2020 - 05:09
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Differences in Cortical Gray Matter Atrophy of Paraplegia and Tetraplegia after Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

J Neurotrauma. 2019 06 15;36(12):2045-2051

Authors: Karunakaran KD, He J, Zhao J, Cui JL, Zang YF, Zhang Z, Biswal BB

Abstract
Anatomical studies of spinal cord injury (SCI) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) report diverging observations, from "no changes" to "tissue atrophy in motor and non-motor regions." These discrepancies among studies can be attributed to heterogeneity in extent, level, and post-injury duration observed within the SCI population. But, no studies have investigated structural changes associated with different levels of injury (paraplegia vs. tetraplegia). High-resolution MRI images were processed using a voxel-based morphometry technique to compare regional gray matter volume (GMV) between 16 complete paraplegia and 7 complete tetraplegia SCI subjects scanned within 2 years of injury when compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A post-hoc analysis using a region of interest-based approach was utilized to quantify GMV differences between healthy controls and subgroups of SCI. A voxel-wise one-sample t-test was also performed to evaluate the mean effect of post-injury duration on GMV of the SCI group. ANCOVA resulted in altered GMV in inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral mid orbital gyrus extending to rectal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. Post-hoc analysis, in general, indicated GM atrophy after SCI, but tetraplegia showed a greater decrease in GMV when compared to paraplegia and healthy controls. Further, the GMV of the middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, mid-orbital gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus was positively correlated with post-injury duration in both paraplegia and tetraplegia groups. GM atrophy after SCI is affected by level of cord injury, with higher levels of injury resulting in greater loss of GMV. Magnitude of GMV loss in the frontal cortex after SCI also appears to be dynamic within the first 2 years of injury. Understanding the effect of injury level and injury duration on structural changes after SCI can help to better understand the mechanisms leading to positive and negative clinical outcome in SCI patients.

PMID: 30430910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]