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Frequency-Dependent Relationship Between Resting-State fMRI and Glucose Metabolism in the Elderly.

Sat, 06/15/2019 - 14:51
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Frequency-Dependent Relationship Between Resting-State fMRI and Glucose Metabolism in the Elderly.

Front Neurol. 2019;10:566

Authors: Jiao F, Gao Z, Shi K, Jia X, Wu P, Jiang C, Ge J, Su H, Guan Y, Shi S, Zang YF, Zuo C

Abstract
Both glucose metabolism and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) signal reflect hemodynamic features. The objective of this study was to investigate their relationship in the resting-state in healthy elderly participants (n = 18). For RS-fMRI signal, regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF), and degree of centrality (DC) maps were generated in multiple frequency bands. Glucose uptake was acquired with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Linear correlation of each pair of the FDG-PET and RS-fMRI metrics was explored both in across-voxel way and in across-subject way. We found a significant across-voxel correlation between the FDG-PET and BOLD-fMRI metrics. However, only a small portion of voxels showed significant across-subject correlation between FDG-PET and BOLD-fMRI metrics. All these results were similar across all frequency bands of RS-fMRI data. The current findings indicate that FDG-PET and RS-fMRI metrics share similar spatial pattern (significant across-voxel correlation) but have different underlying physiological importance (non-significant across-subject correlation). Specifically, FDG-PET measures the mean glucose metabolism over tens of minutes, while RS-fMRI measures the dynamic characteristics. The combination of FDG-PET and RS-fMRI provides complementary information to reveal the underlying mechanisms of the brain activity and may enable more comprehensive interpretation of clinical PET-fMRI studies. Future studies would attempt to reduce the artifacts of RS-fMRI and to analyze the dynamic feature of PET signal.

PMID: 31191447 [PubMed]

Linked anatomical and functional brain alterations in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Mon, 05/13/2019 - 14:03
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Linked anatomical and functional brain alterations in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Neuroimage Clin. 2019 May 04;23:101851

Authors: Wu ZM, Llera A, Hoogman M, Cao QJ, Zwiers MP, Bralten J, An L, Sun L, Yang L, Yang BR, Zang YF, Franke B, Beckmann CF, Mennes M, Wang YF

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have independently demonstrated brain anatomical and functional impairments in participants with ADHD. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between structural and functional brain alterations in ADHD through an integrated analysis of multimodal neuroimaging data.
METHODS: We performed a multimodal analysis to integrate resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), structural MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging data in a large, single-site sample of children with and without diagnosis for ADHD. The inferred subject contributions were fed into regression models to investigate the relationships between diagnosis, symptom severity, gender, and age.
RESULTS: Compared with controls, children with ADHD diagnosis showed altered white matter microstructure in widespread white matter fiber tracts as well as greater gray matter volume (GMV) in bilateral frontal regions, smaller GMV in posterior regions, and altered functional connectivity (FC) in default mode and fronto-parietal networks. Age-related growth of GMV of bilateral occipital lobe, FC in frontal regions as well as age-related decline of GMV in medial regions seen in controls appeared reversed in children with ADHD. In the whole group, higher symptom severity was related to smaller GMV in widespread regions in bilateral frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as greater GMV in intracalcarine and temporal cortices.
CONCLUSIONS: Through a multimodal analysis approach we show that structural and functional alterations in brain regions known to be altered in subjects with ADHD from unimodal studies are linked across modalities. The brain alterations were related to clinical features of ADHD, including disorder status, age, and symptom severity.

PMID: 31077980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Non-invasive evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with transient ischemic attack: an fMRI study.

Thu, 05/09/2019 - 13:56
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Non-invasive evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with transient ischemic attack: an fMRI study.

J Neurol. 2019 Jan;266(1):157-164

Authors: Lv Y, Wei W, Song Y, Han Y, Zhou C, Zhou D, Zhang F, Xue Q, Liu J, Zhao L, Zhang C, Li L, Zang YF, Han X

Abstract
Detection of hypoperfused tissue due to the ischemia is considered to be important in understanding the cerebral perfusion status and may be helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions for patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). We hypothesized that the combination of two non-invasive fMRI techniques: resting-state BOLD-fMRI time-shift analysis (TSA) approach and 3D ASL, could detect the cerebral hemodynamic status in TIA patients noninvasively. From April 2015 to June 2016, 51 TIA patients were recruited in this study. We calculated the time delay between the resting-state BOLD signal at each voxel and the whole-brain signal using TSA approach and compared the results to CBF map derived from ASL. Out of the 51 patients, 24 patients with normal arrival time and CBF were in Stage 0; 14 patients who showed delayed arrival time and normal CBF which indicated elevated CBV were in Stage I; the other 13 patients who had both delayed arrival time and decreased CBF were in Stage II, the group average spatial overlap, i.e., Dice coefficient, of the two measurements was 0.55. Four patients in Stage 0 (17.4%), three patients in Stage I (23.1%) and five patients in Stage II (45.5%) suffered ischemic stroke or TIA symptoms in 1 year after MRI scan. The patients in Stage II was at highest risk of subsequent events when compared to other two stages. The combination of resting-state BOLD-fMRI and ASL hold the potential to noninvasively identify the hemodynamic status in TIA patients and help predict the risk of subsequent events.

PMID: 30446964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reduced default mode network functional connectivity in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

Mon, 04/15/2019 - 11:59
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Reduced default mode network functional connectivity in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Apr 12;:

Authors: Yan CG, Chen X, Li L, Castellanos FX, Bai TJ, Bo QJ, Cao J, Chen GM, Chen NX, Chen W, Cheng C, Cheng YQ, Cui XL, Duan J, Fang YR, Gong QY, Guo WB, Hou ZH, Hu L, Kuang L, Li F, Li KM, Li T, Liu YS, Liu ZN, Long YC, Luo QH, Meng HQ, Peng DH, Qiu HT, Qiu J, Shen YD, Shi YS, Wang CY, Wang F, Wang K, Wang L, Wang X, Wang Y, Wu XP, Wu XR, Xie CM, Xie GR, Xie HY, Xie P, Xu XF, Yang H, Yang J, Yao JS, Yao SQ, Yin YY, Yuan YG, Zhang AX, Zhang H, Zhang KR, Zhang L, Zhang ZJ, Zhou RB, Zhou YT, Zhu JJ, Zou CJ, Si TM, Zuo XN, Zhao JP, Zang YF

Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and disabling, but its neuropathophysiology remains unclear. Most studies of functional brain networks in MDD have had limited statistical power and data analysis approaches have varied widely. The REST-meta-MDD Project of resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) addresses these issues. Twenty-five research groups in China established the REST-meta-MDD Consortium by contributing R-fMRI data from 1,300 patients with MDD and 1,128 normal controls (NCs). Data were preprocessed locally with a standardized protocol before aggregated group analyses. We focused on functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN), frequently reported to be increased in MDD. Instead, we found decreased DMN FC when we compared 848 patients with MDD to 794 NCs from 17 sites after data exclusion. We found FC reduction only in recurrent MDD, not in first-episode drug-naïve MDD. Decreased DMN FC was associated with medication usage but not with MDD duration. DMN FC was also positively related to symptom severity but only in recurrent MDD. Exploratory analyses also revealed alterations in FC of visual, sensory-motor, and dorsal attention networks in MDD. We confirmed the key role of DMN in MDD but found reduced rather than increased FC within the DMN. Future studies should test whether decreased DMN FC mediates response to treatment. All R-fMRI indices of data contributed by the REST-meta-MDD consortium are being shared publicly via the R-fMRI Maps Project.

PMID: 30979801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]