Spatiotemporal nonlinearity in resting-state fMRI of the human brain.
Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this work, the spatiotemporal nonlinearity in resting-state fMRI data of the human brain was detected by nonlinear dynamics methods. Nine human subjects during resting state were imaged using single-shot gradient echo planar imaging on a 1.5T scanner. Eigenvalue spectra for the covariance matrix, correlation dimensions and Spatiotemporal Lyapunov Exponents were calculated to detect the spatiotemporal nonlinearity in resting-state fMRI data. By simulating, adjusting, and comparing the eigenvalue spectra of pure correlated noise with the corresponding real fMRI data, the intrinsic dimensionality was estimated. The intrinsic dimensionality was used to extract the first few principal components from the real fMRI data using Principal Component Analysis, which will preserve the correct phase dynamics, while reducing both computational load and noise level of the data. Then the phase-space was reconstructed using the time-delay embedding method for their principal components and the correlation dimension was estimated by the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm of multiple variable series. The Spatiotemporal Lyapunov Exponents were calculated by using the method based on coupled map lattices. Through nonlinearity testing, there are significant differences of correlation dimensions and Spatiotemporal Lyapunov Exponents between fMRI data and their surrogate data. The fractal dimension and the positive Spatiotemporal Lyapunov Exponents characterize the spatiotemporal nonlinear dynamics property of resting-state fMRI data. Therefore, the results suggest that fluctuations presented in resting state may be an inherent model of basal neural activation of human brain, cannot be fully attributed to noise.
PMID: 18316208 [Click to show in PubMed]