Most recent paper

Age-Associated Differences of Modules and Hubs in Brain Functional Networks.

Fri, 02/05/2021 - 19:08
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Age-Associated Differences of Modules and Hubs in Brain Functional Networks.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2020;12:607445

Authors: Zhang Y, Wang Y, Chen N, Guo M, Wang X, Chen G, Li Y, Yang L, Li S, Yao Z, Hu B

Abstract
Healthy aging is usually accompanied by changes in the functional modular organization of the human brain, which may result in the decline of cognition and underlying brain dysfunction. However, the relationship between age-related brain functional modular structure differences and cognition remain debatable. In this study, we investigated the age-associated differences of modules and hubs from young, middle and old age groups, using resting-state fMRI data from a large cross-sectional adulthood sample. We first divided the subjects into three age groups and constructed an individual-level network for each subject. Subsequently, a module-guided group-level network construction method was applied to form a weighted network for each group from which functional modules were detected. The intra- and inter-modular connectivities were observed negatively correlated with age. According to the detected modules, we found the number of connector hubs in the young group was more than middle-age and old group, while the quantity of provincial hubs in middle-age group was discovered more than other two groups. Further ROI-wise analysis shows that different hubs have distinct age-associated trajectories of intra- and inter-modular connections, which suggests the different types of topological role transitions in functional networks across age groups. Our results indicated an inverse association between functional segregation/integration with age, which demonstrated age-associated differences in communication effeciency. This study provides a new perspective and useful information to better understand the normal aging of brain networks.

PMID: 33536893 [PubMed]

Investigation of Changes in Retinal Detachment-Related Brain Region Activities and Functions Using the Percent Amplitude of Fluctuation Method: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Fri, 02/05/2021 - 19:08
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Investigation of Changes in Retinal Detachment-Related Brain Region Activities and Functions Using the Percent Amplitude of Fluctuation Method: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2021;17:251-260

Authors: Yang YC, Li QY, Chen MJ, Zhang LJ, Zhang MY, Pan YC, Ge QM, Shu HY, Lin Q, Shao Y

Abstract
Purpose: The percent amplitude of fluctuation (PerAF) method was used to study the changes in neural activities and functions in specific brain regions of patients with a retinal detachment (RD).
Patients and Methods: In this study, we recruited 15 RD patients (nine males and six females) and 15 healthy controls (HCs) matched for gender, age, and weight. All participants were scanned with resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The PerAF method was then used for data analysis to evaluate and detect changes in neural activity in relevant brain regions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the two groups.
Results: The PerAF signal values of the right fusiform gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus of RD patients were significantly higher than those of HCs. This may indicate changes in neural activity and function in the related brain regions. The anxiety and depression scores of hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the durations in RD patients were positively correlated with the PerAF values of the left inferior temporal gyrus.
Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that there were significant changes in the PerAF values in specific areas of the brain in patients with RD. The change of PerAF values represent the changes of BOLD signal intensity, which reflect the hyperactivity or weakening of specific brain regions in RD patients, which are helpful to predict the development and prognosis of RD patients, and play an important role in the early diagnosis of RD. In addition, according to the results, changes in neural activity in specific brain regions of RD patients increase the risk of brain dysfunction related diseases, which may help to understand the pathological mechanism of vision loss in RD patients.

PMID: 33536757 [PubMed]

Impaired visual working memory and reduced connectivity in undergraduates with a history of mild traumatic brain injury.

Thu, 02/04/2021 - 19:07
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Impaired visual working memory and reduced connectivity in undergraduates with a history of mild traumatic brain injury.

Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 02;11(1):2789

Authors: Arciniega H, Shires J, Furlong S, Kilgore-Gomez A, Cerreta A, Murray NG, Berryhill ME

Abstract
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, accounts for 85% of all TBIs. Yet survivors anticipate full cognitive recovery within several months of injury, if not sooner, dependent upon the specific outcome/measure. Recovery is variable and deficits in executive function, e.g., working memory (WM) can persist years post-mTBI. We tested whether cognitive deficits persist in otherwise healthy undergraduates, as a conservative indicator for mTBI survivors at large. We collected WM performance (change detection, n-back tasks) using various stimuli (shapes, locations, letters; aurally presented numbers and letters), and wide-ranging cognitive assessments (e.g., RBANS). We replicated the observation of a general visual WM deficit, with preserved auditory WM. Surprisingly, visual WM deficits were equivalent in participants with a history of mTBI (mean 4.3 years post-injury) and in undergraduates with recent sports-related mTBI (mean 17 days post-injury). In seeking the underlying mechanism of these behavioral deficits, we collected resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and EEG (rsEEG). RsfMRI revealed significantly reduced connectivity within WM-relevant networks (default mode, central executive, dorsal attention, salience), whereas rsEEG identified no differences (modularity, global efficiency, local efficiency). In summary, otherwise healthy current undergraduates with a history of mTBI present behavioral deficits with evidence of persistent disconnection long after full recovery is expected.

PMID: 33531546 [PubMed - in process]

Metabolic and Hemodynamic Resting-State Connectivity of the Human Brain: A High-Temporal Resolution Simultaneous BOLD-fMRI and FDG-fPET Multimodality Study.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 19:06
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Metabolic and Hemodynamic Resting-State Connectivity of the Human Brain: A High-Temporal Resolution Simultaneous BOLD-fMRI and FDG-fPET Multimodality Study.

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Feb 03;:

Authors: Jamadar SD, Ward PGD, Liang EX, Orchard ER, Chen Z, Egan GF

Abstract
Simultaneous [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography functional magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/fMRI) provides the capacity to image 2 sources of energetic dynamics in the brain-glucose metabolism and the hemodynamic response. fMRI connectivity has been enormously useful for characterizing interactions between distributed brain networks in humans. Metabolic connectivity based on static FDG-PET has been proposed as a biomarker for neurological disease, but FDG-sPET cannot be used to estimate subject-level measures of "connectivity," only across-subject "covariance." Here, we applied high-temporal resolution constant infusion functional positron emission tomography (fPET) to measure subject-level metabolic connectivity simultaneously with fMRI connectivity. fPET metabolic connectivity was characterized by frontoparietal connectivity within and between hemispheres. fPET metabolic connectivity showed moderate similarity with fMRI primarily in superior cortex and frontoparietal regions. Significantly, fPET metabolic connectivity showed little similarity with FDG-sPET metabolic covariance, indicating that metabolic brain connectivity is a nonergodic process whereby individual brain connectivity cannot be inferred from group-level metabolic covariance. Our results highlight the complementary strengths of fPET and fMRI in measuring the intrinsic connectivity of the brain and open up the opportunity for novel fundamental studies of human brain connectivity as well as multimodality biomarkers of neurological diseases.

PMID: 33529320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of denoising strategies for task-based functional connectivity: Equalizing residual motion artifacts between rest and cognitively demanding tasks.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 19:06
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Evaluation of denoising strategies for task-based functional connectivity: Equalizing residual motion artifacts between rest and cognitively demanding tasks.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2021 Feb 02;:

Authors: Mascali D, Moraschi M, DiNuzzo M, Tommasin S, Fratini M, Gili T, Wise RG, Mangia S, Macaluso E, Giove F

Abstract
In-scanner head motion represents a major confounding factor in functional connectivity studies and it raises particular concerns when motion correlates with the effect of interest. One such instance regards research focused on functional connectivity modulations induced by sustained cognitively demanding tasks. Indeed, cognitive engagement is generally associated with substantially lower in-scanner movement compared with unconstrained, or minimally constrained, conditions. Consequently, the reliability of condition-dependent changes in functional connectivity relies on effective denoising strategies. In this study, we evaluated the ability of common denoising pipelines to minimize and balance residual motion-related artifacts between resting-state and task conditions. Denoising pipelines-including realignment/tissue-based regression, PCA/ICA-based methods (aCompCor and ICA-AROMA, respectively), global signal regression, and censoring of motion-contaminated volumes-were evaluated according to a set of benchmarks designed to assess either residual artifacts or network identifiability. We found a marked heterogeneity in pipeline performance, with many approaches showing a differential efficacy between rest and task conditions. The most effective approaches included aCompCor, optimized to increase the noise prediction power of the extracted confounding signals, and global signal regression, although both strategies performed poorly in mitigating the spurious distance-dependent association between motion and connectivity. Censoring was the only approach that substantially reduced distance-dependent artifacts, yet this came at the great cost of reduced network identifiability. The implications of these findings for best practice in denoising task-based functional connectivity data, and more generally for resting-state data, are discussed.

PMID: 33528884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity of the default mode, dorsal attention and fronto-parietal executive control networks in glial tumor patients.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 19:06
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Functional connectivity of the default mode, dorsal attention and fronto-parietal executive control networks in glial tumor patients.

J Neurooncol. 2021 Feb 02;:

Authors: Tordjman M, Madelin G, Gupta PK, Cordova C, Kurz SC, Orringer D, Golfinos J, Kondziolka D, Ge Y, Wang RL, Lazar M, Jain R

Abstract
PURPOSE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is an emerging tool to explore the functional connectivity of different brain regions. We aimed to assess the disruption of functional connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN), Dorsal Attention Network(DAN) and Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN) in patients with glial tumors.
METHODS: rsfMRI data acquired on 3T-MR of treatment-naive glioma patients prospectively recruited (2015-2019) and matched controls from the 1000 functional-connectomes-project were analyzed using the CONN functional toolbox. Seed-Based Connectivity Analysis (SBCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA, with 10 to 100 components) were performed to study reliably the three networks of interest.
RESULTS: 35 patients with gliomas (17 WHO grade I-II, 18 grade III-IV) and 70 controls were included. Global increased DMN connectivity was consistently found with SBCA and ICA in patients compared to controls (Cluster1: Precuneus, height: p < 10-6; Cluster2: subcallosum; height: p < 10-5). However, an area of decreased connectivity was found in the posterior corpus callosum, particularly in high-grade gliomas (height: p < 10-5). The DAN demonstrated small areas of increased connectivity in frontal and occipital regions (height: p < 10-6). For the FPN, increased connectivity was noted in the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and frontal cortex. No difference in the connectivity of the networks of interest was demonstrated between low- and high-grade gliomas, as well as when stratified by their IDH1-R132H (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutation status.
CONCLUSION: Altered functional connectivity is reliably found with SBCA and ICA in the DMN, DAN, and FPN in glioma patients, possibly explained by decreased connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres across the corpus callosum due to disruption of the connections.

PMID: 33528739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Penalized model-based clustering of fMRI data.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 19:06
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Penalized model-based clustering of fMRI data.

Biostatistics. 2021 Feb 02;:

Authors: Dilernia A, Quevedo K, Camchong J, Lim K, Pan W, Zhang L

Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data have become increasingly available and are useful for describing functional connectivity (FC), the relatedness of neuronal activity in regions of the brain. This FC of the brain provides insight into certain neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, and thus is of clinical importance. To help inform physicians regarding patient diagnoses, unsupervised clustering of subjects based on FC is desired, allowing the data to inform us of groupings of patients based on shared features of connectivity. Since heterogeneity in FC is present even between patients within the same group, it is important to allow subject-level differences in connectivity, while still pooling information across patients within each group to describe group-level FC. To this end, we propose a random covariance clustering model (RCCM) to concurrently cluster subjects based on their FC networks, estimate the unique FC networks of each subject, and to infer shared network features. Although current methods exist for estimating FC or clustering subjects using fMRI data, our novel contribution is to cluster or group subjects based on similar FC of the brain while simultaneously providing group- and subject-level FC network estimates. The competitive performance of RCCM relative to other methods is demonstrated through simulations in various settings, achieving both improved clustering of subjects and estimation of FC networks. Utility of the proposed method is demonstrated with application to a resting-state fMRI data set collected on 43 healthy controls and 61 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia.

PMID: 33527998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Art therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 19:06
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Art therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2021 Jan 23;:

Authors: Cucca A, Di Rocco A, Acosta I, Beheshti M, Berberian M, Bertisch HC, Droby A, Ettinger T, Hudson TE, Inglese M, Jung YJ, Mania DF, Quartarone A, Rizzo JR, Sharma K, Feigin A, Biagioni MC, Ghilardi MF

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential rehabilitative effect of art therapy and its underlying mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Observational study of eighteen patients with PD, followed in a prospective, open-label, exploratory trial. Before and after twenty sessions of art therapy, PD patients were assessed with the UPDRS, Pegboard Test, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and PROMIS-Self-Efficacy, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT), Benton Visual Recognition Test (BVRT), Navon Test, Visual Search, and Stop Signal Task. Eye movements were recorded during the BVRT. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was also performed to assess functional connectivity (FC) changes within the dorsal attention (DAN), executive control (ECN), fronto-occipital (FOC), salience (SAL), primary and secondary visual (V1, V2) brain networks. We also tested fourteen age-matched healthy controls at baseline.
RESULTS: At baseline, PD patients showed abnormal visual-cognitive functions and eye movements. Analyses of rs-fMRI showed increased functional connectivity within DAN and ECN in patients compared to controls. Following art therapy, performance improved on Navon test, eye tracking, and UPDRS scores. Rs-fMRI analysis revealed significantly increased FC levels in brain regions within V1 and V2 networks.
INTERPRETATION: Art therapy improves overall visual-cognitive skills and visual exploration strategies as well as general motor function in patients with PD. The changes in brain connectivity highlight a functional reorganization of visual networks.

PMID: 33526323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Increased sensitivity to strong perturbations in a whole-brain model of LSD.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Increased sensitivity to strong perturbations in a whole-brain model of LSD.

Neuroimage. 2021 Jan 29;:117809

Authors: Jobst BM, Atasoy S, Ponce-Alvarez A, Sanjuán A, Roseman L, Kaelen M, Carhat-Harris R, Kringelbach ML, Deco G

Abstract
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent psychedelic drug, which has seen a revival in clinical and pharmacological research within recent years. Human neuroimaging studies have shown fundamental changes in brain-wide functional connectivity and an expansion of dynamical brain states, thus raising the question about a mechanistic explanation of the dynamics underlying these alterations. Here, we applied a novel perturbational approach based on a whole-brain computational model, which opens up the possibility to externally perturb different brain regions in silico and investigate differences in dynamical stability of different brain states, i.e. the dynamical response of a certain brain region to an external perturbation. After adjusting the whole-brain model parameters to reflect the dynamics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD signals recorded under the influence of LSD or placebo, perturbations of different brain areas were simulated by either promoting or disrupting synchronization in the regarding brain region. After perturbation offset, we quantified the recovery characteristics of the brain area to its basal dynamical state with the Perturbational Integration Latency Index (PILI) and used this measure to distinguish between the two brain states. We found significant changes in dynamical complexity with consistently higher PILI values after LSD intake on a global level, which indicates a shift of the brain's global working point further away from a stable equilibrium as compared to normal conditions. On a local level, we found that the largest differences were measured within the limbic network, the visual network and the default mode network. Additionally, we found a higher variability of PILI values across different brain regions after LSD intake, indicating higher response diversity under LSD after an external perturbation. Our results provide important new insights into the brain-wide dynamical changes underlying the psychedelic state - here provoked by LSD intake - and underline possible future clinical applications of psychedelic drugs in particular psychiatric disorders.

PMID: 33524579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Responses of functional brain networks to bladder control in healthy adults: a study using regional homogeneity combined with independent component analysis methods.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Responses of functional brain networks to bladder control in healthy adults: a study using regional homogeneity combined with independent component analysis methods.

Int Urol Nephrol. 2021 Feb 01;:

Authors: Pang D, Gao Y, Liao L

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was performed during urodynamic examination in healthy adults to determine the responses of functional brain networks to bladder control during urine storage.
METHODS: The brain imaging was performed in empty and full bladder states during urodynamic examination. First, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to obtain several resting state network masks, then the brain regions with significantly different regional homogeneity (ReHo) values between the two states were determined using a paired t test (p < 0.05; Gaussian random field correction [GRF]: voxel p < 0.01 and cluster p < 0.05) and presented in their corresponding resting state network (RSN) masks.
RESULTS: Data sets obtained from the remaining 20 subjects were analyzed after motion correction. Nine RSNs were identified by group-ICA, including the salience network (SN), default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), dorsal attention network (dAN), auditory network (AN), sensorimotor network (SMN), language network (LN), visual network (VN), and cerebellum network (CN). The ReHo values were significantly increased (p < 0.05, GRF corrected) within the SN, DMN, and CEN in the full bladder state compared with the empty bladder state.
CONCLUSION: Significant changes within the three functional brain networks were demonstrated when the bladder was full, suggesting that SN provides bladder sensation and DMN may provide self-reference, self-reflection, and decision-making about whether to void after assessment of the external environment, while CEN may provide support related to episodic memory, which provides new insight into the processing of bladder control and could serve as a premise to further explore the pathologic process underlying bladder dysfunction.

PMID: 33523398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Relationship Among Glucose Metabolism, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Functional Activity: a Hybrid PET/fMRI Study.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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The Relationship Among Glucose Metabolism, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Functional Activity: a Hybrid PET/fMRI Study.

Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Feb 01;:

Authors: Wang J, Sun H, Cui B, Yang H, Shan Y, Dong C, Zang Y, Lu J

Abstract
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) estimate brain activities from different aspects, including regional glucose uptake (rGU) by 18FDG-PET, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by arterial spin labeling, and dynamic changes of deoxyhemoglobin by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the relationships between them remain incompletely understood. In the current study, twenty-four subjects (14 males, 10 females) were recruited and investigated the correlation among rGU, rCBF, and BOLD fMRI-derived metrics reflecting the neural activity, including amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) by hybrid PET/fMRI. Correlation analyses were performed across subject and across space at both voxel level and region level, considering partial volume effects by adjusting for gray matter volume. Each pair of metrics showed significant across-space correlations. rGU against ReHo showed the highest mean correlation coefficients. rGU had higher correlations with three resting-state (RS) fMRI metrics than did ASL-rCBF. However, the across-subject correlations were not significant among functional modalities (rGU, rCBF, and RS-fMRI BOLD data) at either voxel level or region level even with a liberal threshold, except for significant across-subject correlation between RS-fMRI metrics (ALFF, ReHo, and DC). These comprehensive findings from hybrid PET/MR might provide complementary information to reveal the underlying mechanisms of the brain activity and open new perspective to interpret pathologic conditions.

PMID: 33523358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Atypical Resting-State Functional Connectivity Dynamics Correlate With Early Cognitive Dysfunction in HIV Infection.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Atypical Resting-State Functional Connectivity Dynamics Correlate With Early Cognitive Dysfunction in HIV Infection.

Front Neurol. 2020;11:606592

Authors: Nguchu BA, Zhao J, Wang Y, Li Y, Wei Y, Uwisengeyimana JD, Wang X, Qiu B, Li H

Abstract
Purpose: Previous studies have shown that HIV affects striato-cortical regions, leading to persisting cognitive impairment in 30-70% of the infected individuals despite combination antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to investigate brain functional dynamics whose deficits might link to early cognitive decline or immunologic deterioration. Methods: We applied sliding windows and K-means clustering to fMRI data (HIV patients with asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and controls) to construct dynamic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) maps and identify states of their reoccurrences. The average and variability of dynamic RSFC, and the dwelling time and state transitioning of each state were evaluated. Results: HIV patients demonstrated greater variability in RSFC between the left pallidum and regions of right pre-central and post-central gyri, and between the right supramarginal gyrus and regions of the right putamen and left pallidum. Greater variability was also found in the frontal RSFC of pars orbitalis of the left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus (medial). While deficits in learning and memory recall of HIV patients related to greater striato-sensorimotor variability, deficits in attention and working memory were associated with greater frontal variability. Greater striato-parietal variability presented a strong link with immunologic function (CD4+/CD8+ ratio). Furthermore, HIV-infected patients exhibited longer time and reduced transitioning in states typified by weaker connectivity in specific networks. CD4+T-cell counts of the HIV-patients were related to reduced state transitioning. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HIV alters brain functional connectivity dynamics, which may underlie early cognitive impairment. These findings provide novel insights into our understanding of HIV pathology, complementing the existing knowledge.

PMID: 33519683 [PubMed]

Impulsivity and Response Inhibition Related Brain Networks in Adolescents With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Preliminary Study Utilizing Resting-State fMRI.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Impulsivity and Response Inhibition Related Brain Networks in Adolescents With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Preliminary Study Utilizing Resting-State fMRI.

Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:618319

Authors: Chen J, Li X, Zhang Q, Zhou Y, Wang R, Tian C, Xiang H

Abstract
Background and Aims: Internet gaming disorder (IGD), as a relapse disease, has become a common mental health problem among Asian teenagers. Functional connections in the prefrontal lobo-striatum affect changes in impulsivity and inhibition. Therefore, exploration of the directional connections of the relevant brain regions in the prefrontal-striatal circuit and the synchronization level of the two hemispheres will help us to further understand the neural mechanism of IGD, which can provide guidance for the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: Twenty-two adolescents with IGD, recruited through various channels, composed the IGD group. Twenty-six subjects, matching age, gender, and education level, were included in a recreational internet game users (RGUs) control group. Impulsivity and response inhibition were tested via general questionnaire, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Barratt impulsivity scale-11 (BIS-11), and a Stroop color-word task. A Granger causality analysis (GCA) was used to calculate the directional connection between the prefrontal and striatum with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a region of interest (ROI). We chose voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) to determine brain hemisphere functional connectivity in the prefrontal-striatal circuits. Results: We found significant differences in impulsivity between the IGD group and RGU group, with members of the IGD group exhibiting higher impulsivity. Additionally, the response inhibition of adolescents with IGD in the Stroop color-word task was impaired. There was a significant difference in the directed connection of the left DLPFC and dorsal striatum between the IGD group and the RGU group. Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of prefrontal-striatal circuits in the neural mechanism of IGD in adolescents. In the IGD group, bilateral cerebral medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) synchronization was significantly reduced, which indicated that mOFC signal transmission in both hemispheres of the brain might be affected by impulse behavior and impaired response inhibition.

PMID: 33519558 [PubMed]

Alternation of Resting-State Functional Connectivity Between Visual Cortex and Hypothalamus in Guinea Pigs With Experimental Glucocorticoid Enhanced Myopia After the Treatment of Electroacupuncture.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Alternation of Resting-State Functional Connectivity Between Visual Cortex and Hypothalamus in Guinea Pigs With Experimental Glucocorticoid Enhanced Myopia After the Treatment of Electroacupuncture.

Front Neuroinform. 2020;14:579769

Authors: Zhang T, Jiang Q, Xu F, Zhang R, Liu D, Guo D, Wu J, Wen Y, Wang X, Jiang W, Bi H

Abstract
Excessive glucocorticoids (GC) may lead to the aggravation of several basic diseases including myopia, due to plasma hormone imbalances associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective therapeutic method to treat many diseases, although it remains unclear whether EA at acupoints on the foot or back would be effective in treating eye diseases. It was recently found that visual cortex activity for responses to visual stimuli with spatial frequency and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the supramarginal gyrus and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was significantly reduced in patients with high myopia. The present study aims to investigate the role of the alternation of resting-state FC among the bilateral visual cortex and hypothalamus in exerting anti-myopia effects of EA in GC-enhanced lens-induced myopic (LIM) guinea pigs such that the mechanisms of EA to treat GC-enhanced myopia at Shenshu (BL23) acupoints can be probed. To confirm the effects of EA, ocular parameters including axial length and GC-associated physiological parameters such as animal appearance, behavior, bodyweight, and levels of four HPAA-associated plasma hormones [free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T)] were also collected. Increased resting-state FC between the left and right visual cortex was detected in GC-enhanced lens-induced myopic guinea pigs with EA at BL23 acupoints (LIM+GC+EA) guinea pigs compared to GC-enhanced lens-induced myopic guinea pigs with EA at sham acupoints (LIM+GC+Sham) guinea pigs, as well as suppressed myopia and recovery of symptoms initially caused by overdose of GC. Recovered symptoms included improved animal appearance, behavior, bodyweight, and HPAA-associated plasma hormone levels were observed after 4 weeks of EA treatment. In contrast, the LIM+GC+Sham group showed decreased FC with elongation of axial length for myopization as compared to the control group and LIM group and exhibited a deterioration in physiological parameters including reduced body weight and balance disruption in the four measured HPAA-associated plasma hormones. Our findings suggest that EA could effectively treat GC-enhanced myopia by increasing resting-state FC between the left and right visual cortices, which may be pivotal to further understanding the application and mechanisms of EA in treating GC-enhanced myopia.

PMID: 33519409 [PubMed]

Abnormal Static and Dynamic Local-Neural Activity in COPD and Its Relationship With Pulmonary Function and Cognitive Impairments.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Abnormal Static and Dynamic Local-Neural Activity in COPD and Its Relationship With Pulmonary Function and Cognitive Impairments.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2020;14:580238

Authors: Lv Z, Chen Q, Jiang Y, Hu P, Zhang L, Bai T, Wang K, Wang Y, Fan X

Abstract
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by attenuated pulmonary function and are frequently reported with cognitive impairments, especially memory impairments. The mechanism underlying the memory impairments still remains unclear. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to compare the brain local activities with static and dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (sALFF, dALFF) among patients with COPD (n = 32) and healthy controls (HC, n = 30). Compared with HC, COPD patients exhibited decreased sALFF in the right basal ganglia and increased dALFF in the bilateral parahippocampal/hippocampal gyrus. The reduced the left basal ganglia was associated with lower oxygen partial pressure. Besides, the increased dALFF in the left hippocampal/parahippocampal cortex was associated with poor semantic-memory performance and the increased dALFF in the left hippocampal/parahippocampal cortex was associated the forced vital capacity. The present study revealed the abnormal static and dynamic local-neural activities in the basal ganglia and parahippocampal/hippocampal cortex in COPD patient and its relationship with poor lung function and semantic-memory impairments.

PMID: 33519397 [PubMed]

Hemisphere-Specific Functional Remodeling and Its Relevance to Tumor Malignancy of Cerebral Glioma Based on Resting-State Functional Network Analysis.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Hemisphere-Specific Functional Remodeling and Its Relevance to Tumor Malignancy of Cerebral Glioma Based on Resting-State Functional Network Analysis.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:611075

Authors: Cai S, Shi Z, Jiang C, Wang K, Chen L, Ai L, Zhang L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Functional remodeling may vary with tumor aggressiveness of glioma. Investigation of the functional remodeling is expected to provide scientific relevance of tumor characterization and disease management of glioma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere and its utility in predicting the malignant grade of glioma at the individual level with multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six right-handed subjects with histologically confirmed cerebral glioma were included with 80 tumors located in the left hemisphere (LH) and 46 tumors located in the right hemisphere (RH). Resting-state functional networks of the contralesional hemisphere were constructed using the human brainnetome atlas based on resting-state fMRI data. Functional connectivity and topological features of functional networks were quantified. The performance of functional features in predicting the glioma grade was evaluated using area under (AUC) the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The dataset was divided into training and validation datasets. Features with high AUC values in malignancy classification in the training dataset were determined as predictive features. An MLR model was constructed based on predictive features and its classification performance was evaluated on the training and validation datasets with 10-fold cross validation.
RESULTS: Predictive functional features showed apparent hemispheric specifications. MLR classification models constructed with age and predictive functional connectivity features (AUC of 0.853 ± 0.079 and 1.000 ± 0.000 for LH and RH group, respectively) and topological features (AUC of 0.788 ± 0.150 and 0.897 ± 0.165 for LH and RH group, respectively) achieved efficient performance in predicting the malignant grade of gliomas.
CONCLUSION: Functional remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere was hemisphere-specific and highly predictive of the malignant grade of glioma. Network approach provides a novel pathway that may innovate glioma characterization and management at the individual level.

PMID: 33519363 [PubMed]

Functional Neuroimaging in PTSD: From Discovery of Underlying Mechanisms to Addressing Diagnostic Heterogeneity.

Wed, 02/03/2021 - 01:06
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Functional Neuroimaging in PTSD: From Discovery of Underlying Mechanisms to Addressing Diagnostic Heterogeneity.

Am J Psychiatry. 2021 Feb 01;178(2):128-135

Authors: Neria Y

PMID: 33517750 [PubMed - in process]

Accelerated maturation in functional connectivity following early life stress: Circuit specific or broadly distributed?

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 19:05
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Accelerated maturation in functional connectivity following early life stress: Circuit specific or broadly distributed?

Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2021 Jan 20;48:100922

Authors: Herzberg MP, McKenzie KJ, Hodel AS, Hunt RH, Mueller BA, Gunnar MR, Thomas KM

Abstract
Psychosocial acceleration theory and other frameworks adapted from life history predict a link between early life stress and accelerated maturation in several physiological systems. Those findings led researchers to suggest that the emotion-regulatory brain circuits of previously-institutionalized (PI) youth are more mature than youth raised in their biological families (non-adopted, or NA, youth) during emotion tasks. Whether this accelerated maturation is evident during resting-state fMRI has not yet been established. Resting-state fMRI data from 83 early adolescents (Mage = 12.9 years, SD = 0.57 years) including 41 PI and 42 NA youth, were used to examine seed-based functional connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Additional whole-brain analyses assessed group differences in functional connectivity and associations with cognitive performance and behavior. We found group differences in amygdala - vmPFC connectivity that may be consistent with accelerated maturation following early life stress. Further, whole-brain connectivity analyses revealed group differences associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, the majority of whole-brain results were not consistent with an accelerated maturation framework. Our results suggest early life stress in the form of institutional care is associated with circuit-specific alterations to a frontolimbic emotion-regulatory system, while revealing limited differences in more broadly distributed networks.

PMID: 33517108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Attachment security and striatal functional connectivity in typically developing children.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 19:05
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Attachment security and striatal functional connectivity in typically developing children.

Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2021 Jan 20;48:100914

Authors: Choi EJ, Taylor MJ, Vandewouw MM, Hong SB, Kim CD, Yi SH

Abstract
Attachment security is formed through interactions with a main caregiver during the first three years of life and reflects inter-individual differences in mental representations for the relationship. The striatum is known to be a key structure to initiate attachment behaviours and maintain attachment relationships as well as to modulate reward-related processing as part of the approach module in current neurobiological models of human attachment. Although findings have suggested critical roles of the striatum in inter-individual differences in attachment, most studies were based on a wide variety of tasks and very few have investigated these associations in intrinsic brain connectivity in typically developing children. In the present study, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the striatal functional connectivity according to children's attachment security in 68 nine-year-olds (Secure attachment = 39, Insecure attachment = 29, mean age/SD = 9.62/0.69). Children with secure attachment demonstrated increased functional connectivity in the tempro-limbic region, compared to children with insecure attachment. In addition, the child-reported attachment security scores were negatively associated with the caudate-prefrontal connectivity, but positively with the putamen-visual area connectivity. These data demonstrate that inter-individual differences in attachment can be captured in striatal functional connectivity organization in the typical brain.

PMID: 33517105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The neuronal associations of respiratory-volume variability in the resting state.

Tue, 02/02/2021 - 19:05
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The neuronal associations of respiratory-volume variability in the resting state.

Neuroimage. 2021 Jan 28;:117783

Authors: Shams S, LeVan P, Chen JJ

Abstract
The desire to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of resting-state (rs-fMRI) measures has prompted substantial recent research into removing noise components. Chief among contributions to noise in rs-fMRI are physiological processes, and the neuronal implications of respiratory-volume variability (RVT), a main rs-fMRI-relevant physiological process, is incompletely understood. The potential implications of RVT in modulating and being modulated by autonomic nervous regulation, has yet to be fully understood by the rs-fMRI community. In this work, we use high-density electroencephalography (EEG) along with simultaneously acquired RVT recordings to help address this question. We hypothesize that (1) there is a significant relationship between EEG and RVT in multiple EEG bands, and (2) that this relationship varies by brain region. Our results confirm our first hypothesis, although all brain regions are shown to be equally implicated in RVT-related EEG-signal fluctuations. The lag between RVT and EEG is consistent with previously reported values. However, an interesting finding is related to the polarity of the correlation between RVT and EEG. Our results reveal potentially two main regimes of EEG-RVT association, one in which EEG leads RVT with a positive association between the two, and one in which RVT leads EEG but with a negative association between the two. We propose that these two patterns can be interpreted differently in terms of the involvement of higher cognition. These results further suggest that treating RVT simply as noise is likely a questionable practice, and that more work is needed to avoid discarding cognitively relevant information when performing physiological correction rs-fMRI.

PMID: 33516896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]