Most recent paper

Individualized rTMS Treatment for Depression using an fMRI-based Targeting Method

Mon, 08/16/2021 - 18:00

J Vis Exp. 2021 Aug 2;(174). doi: 10.3791/62687.


To achieve greater clinical efficacy, a revolution in treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly anticipated. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive and safe neuromodulation technique that immediately changes brain activity. Despite its wide application in the treatment for MDD, the treatment response remains different among individuals, which may be attributable to the inaccurate positioning of the stimulation target. Our study aims to examine whether the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-assisted positioning improves the efficacy of rTMS in treating depression. We intend to identify and stimulate the subregion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in MDD with strongest anti-correlation with the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and to conduct a comparative investigation of this novel method and the traditional 5-cm rule. To achieve more precise stimulation, both methods were applied under the guidance of neuronavigation system. We expected that the TMS treatment with individualized positioning based on resting state functional connectivity may show better clinical efficacy than the 5-cm method.

PMID:34398163 | DOI:10.3791/62687

Does trauma-focused psychotherapy change the brain? A systematic review of neural correlates of therapeutic gains in PTSD

Mon, 08/16/2021 - 18:00

Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2021 Aug 6;12(1):1929025. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2021.1929025. eCollection 2021.


BACKGROUND: Meta-analytic results indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hyperactivation of the amygdala, and volume reductions of the hippocampus. Effective psychotherapeutic treatments were hypothesized to normalize these neural patterns via upregulation of prefrontal structures, which in turn downregulate limbic regions.

OBJECTIVE: To gain a sound understanding of the effects of successful psychotherapy on the brain, neural changes from pre- to post-treatment in PTSD patients will be aggregated.

METHOD: A systematic literature search identified 24 original studies employing structural or functional MRI measurements both before and after treatment of patients diagnosed with PTSD.

RESULTS: In conjunction, the review returned little evidence of an activation increase in the mPFC/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) following successful treatment. Five out of 12 studies observed such an increase (especially during emotion processing tasks), albeit in partially non-overlapping brain regions. Conversely, neither the putative related activation decrease in the amygdala nor volumetric changes or altered activation during the resting state could be convincingly established.

CONCLUSION: Successful psychological treatments might potentially work via upregulation of the mPFC, which thus may be involved in symptom reduction. However, the role of the amygdala in recovery from PTSD remains unclear. There is currently no indication that the various PTSD treatment approaches employed by the reviewed studies differ regarding their action mechanisms, but further research on this topic is needed.

PMID:34394855 | PMC:PMC8354020 | DOI:10.1080/20008198.2021.1929025

Development of Functional Connectivity within and among the Resting-state Networks in Anesthetized Rhesus Monkeys

Sat, 08/14/2021 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2021 Aug 11:118473. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118473. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The age-related changes in the resting-state networks (RSNs) exhibited temporally specific patterns in humans, and humans and rhesus monkeys have similar RSNs. We hypothesized that the RSNs in rhesus monkeys experienced similar developmental patterns as humans.

METHODS: We acquired resting-state fMRI data from 62 rhesus monkeys, which were divided into childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood groups. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify monkey RSNs. We detected the between-group differences in the RSNs and static, dynamic, and effective functional network connections (FNCs) using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis.

RESULTS: Eight rhesus RSNs were identified, including cerebellum (CN), left and right lateral visual (LVN and RVN), posterior default mode (pDMN), visuospatial (VSN), frontal (FN), salience (SN), and sensorimotor networks (SMN). In internal connections, the CN, SN, FN, and SMN mainly matured in early adulthood. The static FNCs associated with FN, SN, pDMN primarily experienced fast descending slow ascending type (U-shaped) developmental patterns for maturation, and the dynamic FNCs related to pDMN (RVN, CN, and SMN) and SMN (CN) were mature in early adulthood. The effective FNC results showed that the pDMN and VSN (stimulated), SN (inhibited), and FN (first inhibited then stimulated) chiefly matured in early adulthood.

CONCLUSION: We identified eight monkey RSNs, which exhibited similar development patterns as humans. All the RSNs and FNCs in monkeys were not widely changed but fine-tuned. Our study clarified that the progressive synchronization, exploration, and regulation of cognitive RSNs within the pDMN, FN, SN, and VSN denoted potential maturation of the RSNs throughout development. We confirmed the development patterns of RSNs and FNCs would support the use of monkeys as a best animal model for human brain function.

PMID:34390876 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118473

Mapping individual differences across brain network structure to function and behavior with connectome embedding

Sat, 08/14/2021 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2021 Aug 11:118469. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118469. Online ahead of print.


The connectome, a comprehensive map of the brain's anatomical connections, is often summarized as a matrix comprising all dyadic connections among pairs of brain regions. This representation cannot capture higher-order relations within the brain graph. Connectome embedding (CE) addresses this limitation by creating compact vectorized representations of brain nodes capturing their context in the global network topology. Here, nodes "context" is defined as random walks on the brain graph and as such, represents a generative model of diffusive communication around nodes. Applied to group-averaged structural connectivity, CE was previously shown to capture relations between inter-hemispheric homologous brain regions and uncover putative missing edges from the network reconstruction. Here we extend this framework to explore individual differences with a novel embedding alignment approach. We test this approach in two lifespan datasets (NKI: n=542; Cam-CAN: n=601) that include diffusion-weighted imaging, resting-state fMRI, demographics and behavioral measures. We demonstrate that modeling functional connectivity with CE substantially improves structural to functional connectivity mapping both at the group and subject level. Furthermore, age-related differences in this structure-function mapping, are preserved and enhanced. Importantly, CE captures individual differences by out-of-sample prediction of age and intelligence. The resulting predictive accuracy was higher compared to using structural connectivity and functional connectivity. We attribute these findings to the capacity of the CE to incorporate aspects of both anatomy (the structural graph) and function (diffusive communication). Our novel approach allows mapping individual differences in the connectome through structure to function and behavior.

PMID:34390875 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118469

What have we really learned from functional connectivity in clinical populations?

Sat, 08/14/2021 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2021 Aug 10:118466. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118466. Online ahead of print.


Functional connectivity (FC), or the statistical interdependence of blood-oxygen dependent level (BOLD) signals between brain regions using fMRI, has emerged as a widely used tool for probing functional abnormalities in clinical populations due to the promise of the approach across conceptual, technical, and practical levels. With an already vast and steadily accumulating neuroimaging literature on neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological populations in which FC is a primary measure, we aim here to provide a high-level synthesis of major concepts that have arisen from FC findings in a manner that cuts across different clinical conditions and sheds light on overarching principles. We highlight that FC has allowed us to discover the ubiquity of intrinsic functional networks across virtually all brains and clarify typical patterns of neurodevelopment over the lifespan. This understanding of typical FC maturation with age has provided important benchmarks against which to evaluate divergent maturation in early life and degeneration in late life. This in turn has led to the important insight that many clinical conditions are associated with complex, distributed, network-level changes in the brain, as opposed to solely focal abnormalities. We further emphasize the important role that FC studies have played in supporting a dimensional approach to studying transdiagnostic clinical symptoms and in enhancing the multimodal characterization and prediction of the trajectory of symptom progression across conditions. We highlight the unprecedented opportunity offered by FC to probe functional abnormalities in clinical conditions where brain function could not be easily studied otherwise, such as in disorders of consciousness. Lastly, we suggest high priority areas for future research and acknowledge critical barriers associated with the use of FC methods, particularly those related to artifact removal, data denoising and feasibility in clinical contexts.

PMID:34389443 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118466

Altered temporal reachability highlights the role of sensory perception systems in major depressive disorder

Sat, 08/14/2021 - 18:00

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Aug 10:110426. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110426. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: The latest studies have considered the time-dependent structures in dynamic brain networks. However, the effect of periphery structures on the temporal flow of information remains unexplored in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this work, we aimed to explore the pattern of interactions between brain regions in MDD across space and time.

METHODS: We concentrated on the temporal reachability of nodes in temporal brain networks derived from the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of 55 MDD patients and 62 sex-, age-matched healthy controls. Specifically, temporal connectedness and temporal efficiency (TEF) were estimated based on the length of temporal paths between node pairs. Subsequently, the temporal clustering coefficient (TCC) and temporal distance were jointly employed to explore the patterns in which a node's periphery structure affects its reachability.

RESULTS: Significantly higher TEF and lower TCC were found in temporal brain networks in MDD. Besides, significant between-group differences of nodal TCC were detected in regions of sensory perception systems. Considering the temporal paths that begin or end at these regions, MDD patients showed several altered temporal distances.

CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the temporal reachability of specific brain regions in MDD could be affected as their periphery structures evolve, which may explain the dysfunction of sensory perception systems in the spatiotemporal domain.

PMID:34389436 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110426

Miswiring the brain: Human prenatal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol use associated with altered fetal hippocampal brain network connectivity

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2021 Aug 6;51:101000. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101000. Online ahead of print.


Increasing evidence supports a link between maternal prenatal cannabis use and altered neural and physiological development of the child. However, whether cannabis use relates to altered human brain development prior to birth, and specifically, whether maternal prenatal cannabis use relates to connectivity of fetal functional brain systems, remains an open question. The major objective of this study was to identify whether maternal prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) is associated with variation in human brain hippocampal functional connectivity prior to birth. Prenatal drug toxicology and fetal fMRI data were available in a sample of 115 fetuses [43 % female; mean age 32.2 weeks (SD = 4.3)]. Voxelwise hippocampal connectivity analysis in a subset of age and sex-matched fetuses revealed that PCE was associated with alterations in fetal dorsolateral, medial and superior frontal, insula, anterior temporal, and posterior cingulate connectivity. Classification of group differences by age 5 outcomes suggest that compared to the non-PCE group, the PCE group is more likely to have increased connectivity to regions associated with less favorable outcomes and to have decreased connectivity to regions associated with more favorable outcomes. This is preliminary evidence that altered fetal neural connectome may contribute to neurobehavioral vulnerability observed in children exposed to cannabis in utero.

PMID:34388638 | DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101000

Impact of binge drinking during college on resting state functional connectivity

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Jul 31;227:108935. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108935. Online ahead of print.


AIM: The current study examined the longitudinal effects of standard binge drinking (4+/5+ drinks for females/males in 2 hours) and extreme binge drinking (8+/10+ drinks for females/males in 2 hours) on resting-state functional connectivity.

METHOD: 119 college students (61 males) were recruited in groups of distinct bingeing patterns at baseline: non-bingeing controls, standard and extreme bingers. Resting-state scans were first obtained when participants were freshmen/sophomores and again approximately two years later. Associations between longitudinal bingeing (reported during this two-year gap) and network connectivity were examined. Network connectivity was calculated by aggregating all edges affiliated with the same network (an edge is a functional connection between two brain regions). The relationship between longitudinal bingeing and connectivity edges was also studied using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).

RESULTS: Greater standard bingeing was negatively associated with change in connectivity between Default Mode Network and Ventral Attention Network (DMN-VAN; False Discovery Rate corrected), controlling for initial binge groups, longitudinal network changes, motions, scanner, SES, sex, and age. The correlations between change in DMN-VAN connectivity and change in cognitive performance (Stroop, Digit Span, Letter Fluency, and Trail Making) were also tested, but the results were not significant. Lastly, CPM failed to identify a generalizable predictive model of longitudinal bingeing from change in connectivity edges.

CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is associated with abnormality in networks implicated in attention and self-focused processes, which, in turn, have been implicated in rumination, craving, and relapse. More extensive alterations in functional connectivity might be observed with heavier or longer binge drinking pattern.

PMID:34388578 | DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108935

Repeated anodal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in mild cognitive impairment patients increased regional homogeneity in multiple brain regions

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

PLoS One. 2021 Aug 13;16(8):e0256100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256100. eCollection 2021.


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve cognitive function. However, it is not clear how high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) regulates the cognitive function and its neural mechanism, especially in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study aimed to examine whether HD-tDCS can modulate cognitive function in individuals with MCI and to determine whether the potential variety is related to spontaneous brain activity changes recorded by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Forty-three individuals with MCI were randomly assigned to receive either 10 HD-tDCS sessions or 10 sham sessions to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) was computed using rs-fMRI data from all participants. The results showed that the fALFF and ReHo values changed in multiple areas following HD-tDCS. Brain regions with significant decreases in fALFF values include the Insula R, Precuneus R, Thalamus L, and Parietal Sup R, while the Temporal Inf R, Fusiform L, Occipital Sup L, Calcarine R, and Angular R showed significantly increased in their fALFF values. The brain regions with significant increases in ReHo values include the Temporal Inf R, Putamen L, Frontal Mid L, Precentral R, Frontal Sup Medial L, Frontal Sup R, and Precentral L. We found that HD-tDCS can alter the intensity and synchrony of brain activity, and our results indicate that fALFF and ReHo analysis are sensitive indicators for the detection of HD-tDCS during spontaneous brain activity. Interestingly, HD-tDCS increases the ReHo values of multiple brain regions, which may be related to the underlying mechanism of its clinical effects, these may also be related to a potential compensation mechanism involving the mobilization of more regions to complete a function following a functional decline.

PMID:34388179 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0256100

Brain Functional Connectivity Changes in Patients with Acute Eye Pain: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

Med Sci Monit. 2021 Aug 13;27:e930588. doi: 10.12659/MSM.930588.


BACKGROUND By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed to study the changes in potential brain function network activity in patients with acute eye pain. Also, by using the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) method, we aimed to explore the relationship between spontaneous brain activity and the clinical features of patients with acute eye pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 15 patients with acute eye pain (5 women and 10 men; EP group) and 15 healthy controls (5 women and 10 men; HC group), were scanned by fMRI. The DC method was used to evaluate changes in spontaneous brain activity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between DC values and clinical manifestations in different regions of brain. RESULTS The area of the left limbic lobe showed a reduction in DC value in patients in the EP group. DC values were elevated in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, left inferior temporal gyrus, left precuneus, and right cerebellum posterior lobe in the EP group. The visual analog scale value of the eyes in the EP group was negatively correlated with the left limbic lobe signal value and positively correlated with the left inferior parietal lobule signal value. Further, the scores of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and DC value of the left limbic lobe were negatively correlated. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the HC group, patients with acute eye pain had abnormal patterns of intrinsic brain activity in different brain regions, which may help reveal the potential neural mechanisms involved in eye pain.

PMID:34388144 | DOI:10.12659/MSM.930588

Nodal Memberships to Communities of Functional Brain Networks Reveal Functional Flexibility and Individualized Connectome

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Aug 12:bhab144. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab144. Online ahead of print.


Human brain network is organized as interconnected communities for supporting cognition and behavior. Despite studies on the nonoverlapping communities of brain network, overlapping community structure and its relationship to brain function remain largely unknown. With this consideration, we employed the Bayesian nonnegative matrix factorization to decompose the functional brain networks constructed from resting-state fMRI data into overlapping communities with interdigitated mapping to functional subnetworks. By examining the heterogeneous nodal membership to communities, we classified nodes into three classes: Most nodes in somatomotor and limbic subnetworks were affiliated with one dominant community and classified as unimodule nodes; most nodes in attention and frontoparietal subnetworks were affiliated with more than two communities and classified as multimodule nodes; and the remaining nodes affiliated with two communities were classified as bimodule nodes. This three-class paradigm was highly reproducible across sessions and subjects. Furthermore, the more likely a node was classified as multimodule node, the more flexible it will be engaged in multiple tasks. Finally, the FC feature vector associated with multimodule nodes could serve as connectome "fingerprinting" to gain high subject discriminability. Together, our findings offer new insights on the flexible spatial overlapping communities that related to task-based functional flexibility and individual connectome "fingerprinting."

PMID:34387312 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhab144

APOE genotype moderates the relationship between LRP1 polymorphism and cognition across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum via disturbing default mode network

Fri, 08/13/2021 - 18:00

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2021 Aug 12. doi: 10.1111/cns.13716. Online ahead of print.


AIMS: This study aims to investigate the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modulates the relationship between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) rs1799986 variant on the default mode network (DMN) and cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum populations.

METHODS: Cross-sectional 168 subjects of AD spectrum were obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database with resting-state fMRI scans and neuropsychological scores data. Multivariable linear regression analysis was adopted to investigate the main effects and interaction of LRP1 and disease on the DMN. Moderation and interactive analyses were performed to assess the relationships among APOE, LRP1, and cognition. A support vector machine model was used to classify AD spectrum with altered connectivity as an objective diagnostic biomarker.

RESULTS: The main effects and interaction of LRP1 and disease were mainly focused on the core hubs of frontal-parietal network. Several brain regions with altered connectivity were correlated with cognitive scores in LRP1-T carriers, but not in non-carriers. APOE regulated the effect of LRP1 on cognitive performance. The functional connectivity of numerous brain regions within LRP1-T carriers yielded strong power for classifying AD spectrum.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggested LRP1 could affect DMN and provided a stage-dependent neuroimaging biomarker for classifying AD spectrum populations.

PMID:34387022 | DOI:10.1111/cns.13716

Investigation of changes in activity and function in acute unilateral open globe injury-associated brain regions based on percent amplitude of fluctuation method: a resting-state functional MRI study

Thu, 08/12/2021 - 18:00

Acta Radiol. 2021 Aug 12:2841851211034035. doi: 10.1177/02841851211034035. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Open globe injury (OGI) is a serious condition that can lead to visual impairment and lifelong sequelae, brain activity of some brain regions would change in patients with OGI.

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in brain activity associated with unilateral OGI by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and analysis of percentage amplitude of fluctuation (PerAF).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22 patients with OGI (12 men, 10 women) and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for sex, age, and body weight were enrolled. All patients underwent rs-fMRI scans. Brain activity in the relevant brain regions was assessed with the PerAF method. The ability of PerAF to distinguish patients with OGI from HCs was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We also examined the relationship between Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and PerAF signals by Pearson's correlation analysis.

RESULTS: PerAF values in amygdala_R and Frontal_Inf_Orb_L/Frontal_Inf_Oper_L were increased whereas that in Cerebellum Anterior Lobe/Cerebelum_8_L was decreased in patients with OGI compared to HCs. The areas under the ROC curve showed that these brain regions could distinguish between patients with OGI and HCs. The PerAF value of amygdala_R was positively correlated with HADS scores.

CONCLUSION: Changes in PerAF in the amygdala_R, Frontal_inferior_Orb_L/Frontal_Inf_Oper_L, and Cerebellum Anterior Lobe/Cerebelum_8_L in patients with OGI may be related to an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. PerAF can be used to investigate the neural basis of complications associated with OGI and monitor disease progression.

PMID:34382431 | DOI:10.1177/02841851211034035

A systematic review of resting state functional MRI connectivity changes and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

Thu, 08/12/2021 - 18:00

Brain Connect. 2021 Aug 12. doi: 10.1089/brain.2021.0104. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly being investigated with resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) functional connectivity (FC) . However, results remain difficult to interpret, showing both high and low FC associated with cognitive impairment. We conducted a systematic review of rs-fMRI studies in MS to understand whether the direction of FC change relates to cognitive dysfunction, and how this may be influenced by the choice of methodology.

METHODS: Embase, Medline and PsycINFO were searched for studies assessing cognitive function and rs-fMRI FC in adults with MS.

RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies were included in a narrative synthesis. Of these, 50 found an association between cognitive impairment and FC abnormalities. Worse cognition was linked to high FC in 18 studies, and to low FC in 17 studies. Nine studies found patterns of both high and low FC related to poor cognitive performance, in different regions or for different MR metrics. There was no clear link to increased FC during early stages of MS and reduced FC in later stages, as predicted by common models of MS pathology. Throughout, we found substantial heterogeneity in study methodology, and carefully consider how this may impact on the observed findings.

DISCUSSION: These results indicate an urgent need for greater standardisation in the field - in terms of the choice of MRI analysis and the definition of cognitive impairment. This will allow us to use rs-fMRI FC as a biomarker in future clinical studies, and as a tool to understand mechanisms underpinning cognitive symptoms in MS.

PMID:34382408 | DOI:10.1089/brain.2021.0104

Functional connectivity changes in complex migraine aura: beyond the visual network

Thu, 08/12/2021 - 18:00

Eur J Neurol. 2021 Aug 12. doi: 10.1111/ene.15061. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of migraine with aura (MwA) patients experiences simple visual aura, a discrete percentage also reports somatosensory, dysphasic or motor symptoms (the so-called complex auras). The wide aura clinical spectrum led to investigate whether the heterogeneity of aura phenomenon could be subtended by different neural correlates, suggesting an increased visual cortical excitability in complex MwA. We aimed to explore whether complex MwA patients are characterized by more pronounced connectivity changes of the visual network and whether functional abnormalities may extend beyond the visual network encompassing also the sensorimotor network in complex MwA patients when compared to simple visual MwA patients.

METHODS: By using a resting state-fMRI approach, we compared the resting state functional connectivity (RS-Fc) of both visual and sensorimotor networks in 20 complex MwA patients in comparison with 20 simple visual MwA patients and 20 migraine without aura (MwoA) patients.

RESULTS: Complex MwA patients showed a significantly higher RS-Fc of the left lingual gyrus, within the visual network, and of the right anterior insula, within the sensorimotor network, when compared to both simple visual MwA and MwoA patients (p<0.001). The abnormal right anterior insula RS-Fc was able to discriminate complex MwA patients from simple aura MwA patients as demonstrated by logistic regression analysis (AUC: 0.83).

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that higher extrastriate RS-Fc might promote the CSD onset representing the neural correlate of simple visual aura that can propagate to sensorimotor regions, if an increased insula RS-Fc coexists, leading to complex aura phenotypes.

PMID:34382315 | DOI:10.1111/ene.15061

Does central nervous system dysfunction underlie patellofemoral pain in young females? Examining brain functional connectivity in association with patient-reported outcomes

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 18:00

J Orthop Res. 2021 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/jor.25152. Online ahead of print.


Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is defined as retro- or peri-patellar knee pain without a clear structural abnormality. Unfortunately, many current treatment approaches fail to provide long-term pain relief, potentially due to an incomplete understanding of pain-disrupted sensorimotor dysfunction within the central nervous system. The purposes of this study were to evaluate brain functional connectivity in participants with and without PFP, and to determine the relationship between altered brain functional connectivity in association with patient-reported outcomes. Young female patients with PFP (n = 15; 14.3 ± 3.2 years) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and patient-reported outcome measures. Each patient with PFP was matched with two controls (n = 30, 15.5 ± 1.4 years) who also completed identical rs-fMRI testing. Six bilateral seeds important for pain and sensorimotor control were created, and seed-to-voxel analyses were conducted to compare functional connectivity between the two groups, as well as to determine the relationship between connectivity alterations and patient-reported outcomes. Relative to controls, patients with PFP exhibited altered functional connectivity between regions important for pain, psychological functioning, and sensorimotor control, and the connectivity alterations were related to perceived disability, dysfunction, and kinesiophobia. The present results support emergent evidence that PFP is not localized to structural knee dysfunction, but may actually be resultant to altered central neural processes. Clinical significance: These data provide potential neuro-therapeutic targets for novel therapies aimed to reorganize neural processes, improve neuromuscular function, and restore an active pain-free lifestyle in young females with PFP.

PMID:34379343 | DOI:10.1002/jor.25152

Disrupted resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without neuropsychiatric lupus

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 18:00

Neuroradiology. 2021 Aug 11. doi: 10.1007/s00234-021-02750-7. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to explore interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE and non-NPSLE, respectively) and their potential correlations with clinical characteristics and neuropsychological performance.

METHODS: Based on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data collected from SLE patients and matched healthy controls (HCs), the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) analysis was conducted to measure functional homotopy. Subsequently, correlations between altered functional homotopy and clinical/neuropsychological data were analyzed.

RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups showed attenuated homotopic connectivity in middle temporal gyrus (MTG), cuneus (CUN), middle occipital gyrus (MOG), angular gyrus (ANG), and postcentral gyrus (PoCG). NPSLE patients also exhibited decreased homotopic connectivity in inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Compared with non-NPSLE patients, NPSLE patients showed weaker interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity in MOG. Decreased homotopic functional connectivity in PoCG, IPG, and MOG were associated with the anxiety state of SLE patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed attenuated functional homotopy in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE groups compared to the HC group, which appeared to be more severe in patients with comorbid neuropsychiatric lupus. Interhemispheric homotopy dysconnectivity may participate in the neuropathology of anxiety symptoms in SLE.

PMID:34379142 | DOI:10.1007/s00234-021-02750-7

Examining resting-state functional connectivity in key hubs of the default mode network in chronic low back pain

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 18:00

Scand J Pain. 2021 Aug 10. doi: 10.1515/sjpain-2020-0184. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: Changes in brain connectivity have been observed within the default mode network (DMN) in chronic low back pain (CLBP), however the extent of these disruptions and how they may be related to CLBP requires further examination. While studies using seed-based analysis have found disrupted functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a major hub of the DMN, limited studies have investigated other equally important hubs, such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in CLBP.

METHODS: This preliminary study comprised 12 individuals with CLBP and 12 healthy controls who completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The mPFC and PCC were used as seeds to assess functional connectivity.

RESULTS: Both groups displayed similar patterns of DMN connectivity, however group comparisons showed that CLBP group had reduced connectivity between the PCC and angular gyrus compared to healthy controls. An exploratory analysis examined whether the alterations observed in mPFC and PCC connectivity were related to pain catastrophizing in CLBP, but no significant associations were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: These results may suggest alterations in the PCC are apparent in CLBP, however, the impact and functional role of these disruptions require further investigation.

PMID:34378878 | DOI:10.1515/sjpain-2020-0184

Social Dysfunction is Transdiagnostically Associated with Default Mode Network Dysconnectivity in Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 18:00

World J Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Aug 11:1-32. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2021.1966714. Online ahead of print.


Objectives Social dysfunction is one of the most common signs of major neuropsychiatric disorders. The Default Mode Network (DMN) is crucially implicated in both psychopathology and social dysfunction, although the transdiagnostic properties of social dysfunction remains unknown. As part of the pan-European PRISM (Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers) project, we explored cross-disorder impact of social dysfunction on DMN connectivity.Methods We studied DMN intrinsic functional connectivity in relation to social dysfunction by applying Independent Component Analysis and Dual Regression on resting-state fMRI data, among Schizophrenia (SZ; N = 48), Alzheimer Disease (AD; N = 47) patients and healthy controls (HC; N = 55). Social dysfunction was operationalized via the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and De Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale (LON).Results Both SFS & LON were independently associated with diminished DMN connectional integrity within rostromedial prefrontal DMN subterritories (pcorrected range =0.02-0.04). The combined effect of these indicators (Mean.SFS + LON) on diminished DMN connectivity was even more pronounced (both spatially and statistically), independent of diagnostic status, and not confounded by key clinical or sociodemographic effects, comprising large sections of rostromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pcorrected =0.01).Conclusions These findings pinpoint DMN connectional alterations as putative transdiagnostic endophenotypes for social dysfunction, and could aid personalized care initiatives grounded in social behavior.

PMID:34378488 | DOI:10.1080/15622975.2021.1966714

Progressive Stabilization of Brain Network Dynamics during Childhood and Adolescence

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 18:00

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Aug 10:bhab263. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab263. Online ahead of print.


Functional brain networks require dynamic reconfiguration to support flexible cognitive function. However, the developmental principles shaping brain network dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal development of large-scale brain network dynamics during childhood and adolescence, and its connection with gene expression profiles. Using a multilayer network model, we show the temporally varying modular architecture of child brain networks, with higher network switching primarily in the association cortex and lower switching in the primary regions. This topographical profile exhibits progressive maturation, which manifests as reduced modular dynamics, particularly in the transmodal (e.g., default-mode and frontoparietal) and sensorimotor regions. These developmental refinements mediate age-related enhancements of global network segregation and are linked with the expression profiles of genes associated with the enrichment of ion transport and nucleobase-containing compound transport. These results highlight a progressive stabilization of brain dynamics, which expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive development.

PMID:34378030 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhab263