Most recent paper

Subscribe to Most recent paper feed Most recent paper
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="resting"[All Fields] AND "fMRI"[All Fields]
Updated: 2 hours 27 min ago

Machine learning identifies "rsfMRI epilepsy networks" in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 21:13
Related Articles

Machine learning identifies "rsfMRI epilepsy networks" in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Eur Radiol. 2019 Feb 08;:

Authors: Bharath RD, Panda R, Raj J, Bhardwaj S, Sinha S, Chaitanya G, Raghavendra K, Mundlamuri RC, Arimappamagan A, Rao MB, Rajeshwaran J, Thennarasu K, Majumdar KK, Satishchandra P, Gandhi TK

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Experimental models have provided compelling evidence for the existence of neural networks in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To identify and validate the possible existence of resting-state "epilepsy networks," we used machine learning methods on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data from 42 individuals with TLE.
METHODS: Probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) was applied to rsfMRI data from 132 subjects (42 TLE patients + 90 healthy controls) and 88 independent components (ICs) were obtained following standard procedures. Elastic net-selected features were used as inputs to support vector machine (SVM). The strengths of the top 10 networks were correlated with clinical features to obtain "rsfMRI epilepsy networks."
RESULTS: SVM could classify individuals with epilepsy with 97.5% accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 94.4%). Ten networks with the highest ranking were found in the frontal, perisylvian, cingulo-insular, posterior-quadrant, thalamic, cerebello-thalamic, and temporo-thalamic regions. The posterior-quadrant, cerebello-thalamic, thalamic, medial-visual, and perisylvian networks revealed significant correlation (r > 0.40) with age at onset of seizures, the frequency of seizures, duration of illness, and a number of anti-epileptic drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: IC-derived rsfMRI networks contain epilepsy-related networks and machine learning methods are useful in identifying these networks in vivo. Increased network strength with disease progression in these "rsfMRI epilepsy networks" could reflect epileptogenesis in TLE.
KEY POINTS: • ICA of resting-state fMRI carries disease-specific information about epilepsy. • Machine learning can classify these components with 97.5% accuracy. • "Subject-specific epilepsy networks" could quantify "epileptogenesis" in vivo.

PMID: 30734849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Oxytocin modulates the effective connectivity between the precuneus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 21:13
Related Articles

Oxytocin modulates the effective connectivity between the precuneus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Kumar J, J Iwabuchi S, A Völlm B, Palaniyappan L

Abstract
Our social activity is heavily influenced by the process of introspection, with emerging research suggesting a role for the Default Mode Network (DMN) in social cognition. We hypothesize that oxytocin, a neuropeptide with an important role in social behaviour, can effectively alter the connectivity of the DMN. We test this hypothesis using a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial where 15 healthy male participants received 24 IU oxytocin or placebo prior to a resting-state functional MRI scan. We used Granger Causality Analysis for the first time to probe the role of oxytocin on brain networks and found that oxytocin reverses the pattern of effective connectivity between the bilateral precuneus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a key central executive network (CEN) region. Under placebo, the bilateral precuneus exerted a significant negative causal influence on the left dlPFC and the left dlPFC exerted a significant positive causal influence on the bilateral precuneus. However, under oxytocin, these patterns were reversed, i.e. positive causal influence from the bilateral precuneus to the left dlPFC and negative causal influence from the left dlPFC to the bilateral precuneus (with statistically significant effects for the right precuneus). We propose that these oxytocin-induced effects could be a mechanistic process by which it modulates social cognition. These results provide a measurable target for the physiological effects of oxytocin in the brain and offer oxytocin as a potential agent to enhance the cooperative role of the predominantly 'task-inactive' 'default mode' brain regions in both healthy and patient populations.

PMID: 30734090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sensorimotor network hypersynchrony as an endophenotype in families with genetic generalized epilepsy: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 09:13
Related Articles

Sensorimotor network hypersynchrony as an endophenotype in families with genetic generalized epilepsy: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Epilepsia. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Tangwiriyasakul C, Perani S, Abela E, Carmichael DW, Richardson MP

Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that three specific brain networks show state-dependent levels of synchronization before, during, and after episodes of generalized spike-wave discharges (GSW) in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Here, we investigate whether synchronization in these networks differs between patients with GGE (n = 13), their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 18). All subjects underwent two 10-minute simultaneous electroencephalographic-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings without GSW. Whole-brain data were divided into 90 regions, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) phase synchrony in a 0.04-0.07-Hz band was estimated between all pairs of regions. Three networks were defined: (1) the network with highest synchrony during GSW events, (2) a sensorimotor network, and (3) an occipital network. Average synchrony (mean node degree) was inferred across each network over time. Notably, synchrony was significantly higher in the sensorimotor network in patients and in unaffected relatives, compared to controls. There was a trend toward higher synchrony in the GSW network in patients and in unaffected relatives. There was no difference between groups for the occipital network. Our findings provide evidence that elevated fMRI BOLD synchrony in a sensorimotor network is a state-independent endophenotype of GGE, present in patients in the absence of GSW, and present in unaffected relatives.

PMID: 30730052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A study of within-subject reliability of the brain's default-mode network.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 09:13
Related Articles

A study of within-subject reliability of the brain's default-mode network.

MAGMA. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Postema MC, De Marco M, Colato E, Venneri A

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is promising for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to examine short-term reliability of the default-mode network (DMN), one of the main haemodynamic patterns of the brain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a 1.5 T Philips Achieva scanner, two consecutive resting-state fMRI runs were acquired on 69 healthy adults, 62 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, and 28 patients with AD dementia. The anterior and posterior DMN and, as control, the visual-processing network (VPN) were computed using two different methodologies: connectivity of predetermined seeds (theory-driven) and dual regression (data-driven). Divergence and convergence in network strength and topography were calculated with paired t tests, global correlation coefficients, voxel-based correlation maps, and indices of reliability.
RESULTS: No topographical differences were found in any of the networks. High correlations and reliability were found in the posterior DMN of healthy adults and MCI patients. Lower reliability was found in the anterior DMN and in the VPN, and in the posterior DMN of dementia patients.
DISCUSSION: Strength and topography of the posterior DMN appear relatively stable and reliable over a short-term period of acquisition but with some degree of variability across clinical samples.

PMID: 30730023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sex-related differences in resting-state brain activity and connectivity in the orbital frontal cortex and insula in patients with functional constipation.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 09:13
Related Articles

Sex-related differences in resting-state brain activity and connectivity in the orbital frontal cortex and insula in patients with functional constipation.

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2019 Feb 06;:e13566

Authors: Jin Q, Duan S, Li G, Sun L, Hu Y, Hu C, Zhao J, von Deneen KM, Qian L, Wang H, Ji G, Wu K, Fan D, Cui G, Nie Y, Zhang Y

Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to investigate sex-related differences in brain abnormalities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Like IBS, women with functional constipation (FC) are 2.1 times as many as men. No study has been performed yet to examine sex-related differences in brain activity and connectivity in patients with FC. Here, we employed resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate brain functional differences in 51 patients with FC (34 females) and 52 healthy controls (34 females). Results showed abdominal pain and abdominal distension correlated with trait (TAI) and state (SAI) anxiety ratings in the female FC group, and abdominal distension correlated with sensation of incomplete evacuation in the male FC group. Two-way ANOVA revealed sex effects on ALFF in precentral gyrus, thalamus, insula (INS), and orbital frontal cortex (OFC, PFWE  < 0.05). Post hoc test showed that the female FC group had lower ALFF than males in these brain regions (P < 0.01), and ALFF in INS and OFC was correlated with abdominal pain and difficulty of defecation, respectively. Seed voxel correlation analysis showed that the female FC group had weaker connectivity than males between INS and lateral OFC (lOFC). INS-lOFC connectivity was negatively correlated with the anxiety score in the female FC group and was negatively correlated with abdominal distension in the male FC group. These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in patients with FC and highlight that INS and OFC play an important role in modulating the intrinsic functional connectivity of the resting brain network showing that this role is influenced by sex.

PMID: 30729624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Disrupted Regional Spontaneous Neural Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Depressive Symptoms: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Sat, 02/09/2019 - 09:13
Related Articles

Disrupted Regional Spontaneous Neural Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Depressive Symptoms: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

Neural Plast. 2019;2019:2981764

Authors: Liu X, Tu Y, Zang Y, Wu A, Guo Z, He J

Abstract
Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who have an increased risk of dementia. It is currently unclear whether the pattern of spontaneous brain activity in patients with MCI differs between subjects with and without depressive symptoms. The current study sought to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity in MCI patients with depressive symptoms (D-MCI) using coherence regional homogeneity (CReHo) analysis with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). We obtained rsfMRI data in 16 MCI patients with depressive symptoms and 18 nondepressed MCI patients (nD-MCI) using a 3 T scanner. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the regions in which ReHo differed between the two groups in specific frequency bands, slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.010-0.027 Hz), and typical bands (0.01-0.08 Hz). Correlation analyses were performed between the CReHo index of these regions and clinical variables to evaluate the relationship between CReHo and pathophysiological measures in the two groups. Our results showed that D-MCI patients exhibited significantly higher CReHo in the left Heschl's gyrus and left thalamus and lower CReHo in the left postcentral gyrus in the typical frequency band. In the slow-4 frequency band, D-MCI patients showed significantly higher CReHo in the left Heschl's gyrus and left thalamus. In the slow-5 frequency band, D-MCI patients exhibited significantly lower CReHo in the superior medial prefrontal gyrus. In addition, the results revealed that CReHo values in the left thalamus were positively correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores in D-MCI patients. These results suggest that the sensorimotor network may be one of the main pathophysiological factors in D-MCI.

PMID: 30728833 [PubMed - in process]

Inhibitory control mediates a negative relationship between body mass index and intelligence: A neurocognitive investigation.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 00:03
Related Articles

Inhibitory control mediates a negative relationship between body mass index and intelligence: A neurocognitive investigation.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2019 Feb 06;:

Authors: Faul L, Fogleman ND, Mattingly KM, Depue BE

Abstract
The structure and function of the human brain is closely related to cognitive processes of the mind and physiological processes of the body, suggesting that an intricate relationship exists between cognitive health, body health, and underlying neural architecture. In the current study, morphometric differences in cortical and subcortical gray matter regions, white matter integrity, and resting-state functional connectivity was assessed to determine what combinations of neural variables best explain an interconnected behavioral relationship between body mass index (BMI), general intelligence, and specific measures of executive function. Data for 82 subjects were obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample. Behavioral results indicated a negative relationship between BMI and intelligence, which exhibited mediation by an inhibitory measure of executive function. Neural analyses further revealed generally contrasting associations of BMI, intelligence, and executive function with cortical morphometric regions important for inhibitory control and directed attention. Moreover, BMI related to morphometric alterations in components of a frontolimbic network, namely reduced thickness in the anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, whereas intelligence and inhibitory control primarily related to increased thickness and volume in parietal regions, as well as significantly increased across-network connectivity of visual and default mode resting-state networks. These results propose that medial prefrontal structure and interconnected frontolimbic and frontoparietal networks are important to consider in the relationship between BMI, intelligence, and executive function.

PMID: 30725324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Impact of Echo Time Shifts and Temporal Signal Fluctuations on BOLD Sensitivity in Presurgical Planning at 7 T.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 00:03
Related Articles

The Impact of Echo Time Shifts and Temporal Signal Fluctuations on BOLD Sensitivity in Presurgical Planning at 7 T.

Invest Radiol. 2019 Feb 01;:

Authors: Dymerska B, De Lima Cardoso P, Bachrata B, Fischmeister F, Matt E, Beisteiner R, Trattnig S, Robinson SD

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Gradients in the static magnetic field caused by tissues with differing magnetic susceptibilities lead to regional variations in the effective echo time, which modifies both image signal and BOLD sensitivity. Local echo time changes are not considered in the most commonly used metric for BOLD sensitivity, temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR), but may be significant, particularly at ultrahigh field close to air cavities (such as the sinuses and ear canals) and near gross brain pathologies and postoperative sites.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied the effect of local variations in echo time and tSNR on BOLD sensitivity in 3 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with tumors, postoperative cavities, and venous malformations at 7 T. Temporal signal-to-noise ratio was estimated from a 5-minute run of resting state echo planar imaging with a nominal echo time of 22 milliseconds. Maps of local echo time were derived from the phase of a multiecho GE scan. One healthy volunteer performed 10 runs of a breath-hold task. The t-map from this experiment served as a criterion standard BOLD sensitivity measure. Two runs of a less demanding breath-hold paradigm were used for patients.
RESULTS: In all subjects, a strong reduction in the echo time (from 22 milliseconds to around 11 milliseconds) was found close to the ear canals and sinuses. These regions were characterized by high tSNR but low t-values in breath-hold t-maps. In some patients, regions of particular interest in presurgical planning were affected by reductions in the echo time to approximately 13-15 milliseconds. These included the primary motor cortex, Broca's area, and auditory cortex. These regions were characterized by high tSNR values (70 and above). Breath-hold results were corrupted by strong motion artifacts in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Criterion standard BOLD sensitivity estimation using hypercapnic experiments is challenging, especially in patient populations. Taking into consideration the tSNR, commonly used for BOLD sensitivity estimation, but ignoring local reductions in the echo time (eg, from 22 to 11 milliseconds), would erroneously suggest functional sensitivity sufficient to map BOLD signal changes. It is therefore important to consider both local variations in the echo time and temporal variations in signal, using the product metric of these two indices for instance. This should ensure a reliable estimation of BOLD sensitivity and to facilitate the identification of potential false-negative results. This is particularly true at high fields, such as 7 T and in patients with large pathologies and postoperative cavities.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PMID: 30724813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Longitudinal brain functional and structural connectivity changes after hemispherotomy in two pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 00:03
Related Articles

Longitudinal brain functional and structural connectivity changes after hemispherotomy in two pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav Case Rep. 2019;11:58-66

Authors: Li Y, Wang Y, Tan Z, Chen Q, Huang W

Abstract
The main focus of the present study was to explore the longitudinal changes in the brain executive control system and default mode network after hemispherotomy. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were collected in two children with drug-resistnt epilepsy underwent hemispherotomy. Two patients with different curative effects showed different trajectories of brain connectivity after surgery. The failed hemispherotomy might be due to the fact that the synchrony of epileptic neurons in both hemispheres is preserved by residual neural pathways. Loss of interhemispheric correlations with increased intrahemispheric correlations can be considered as neural marker for evaluating the success of hemispherotomy.

PMID: 30723671 [PubMed]

Aberrant Brain Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

Fri, 02/08/2019 - 00:03
Related Articles

Aberrant Brain Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

Front Neurol. 2018;9:1177

Authors: Zuo M, Xu Y, Zhang X, Li M, Jia X, Niu J, Li D, Han Y, Yang Y

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the functional connectivity of the entorhinal cortex (EC) in vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and to evaluate the relationships between such changes and neuropsychological measures in VaMCI individuals. In all, 31 patients with VaMCI and 32 normal controls (NCs) underwent rs-fMRI. Differences in whole-brain ReHo and seed-based bilateral EC functional connectivity (EC-FC) were determined. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between regions with significant group differences and different neuropsychological measures. Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) patients had lower scores in Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and higher ones in Activity of Daily Living (ADL) (p < 0.05). Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) individuals had significantly lower ReHo in the left cerebellum and right lentiform nucleus than NCs (P < 0.05, TFCE FWE correction). Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) subjects showed significant decreases in the FC of the right EC in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral pre-central gyrus, and right post-central/superior parietal lobules (P < 0.05, TFCE FWE correction). Significant positive correlations were found between ReHo and MoCA scores for the right lentiform nucleus (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). The right post-central/superior parietal lobules showed a significant positive correlation between right EC-FC and MoCA scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). Patterns in ReHo and EC-FC changes in VaMCI patients and their correlations with neuropsychological measures may be a pathophysiological foundation of cognitive impairment, which may aid the early diagnosis of VaMCI.

PMID: 30723453 [PubMed]

The individual functional connectome is unique and stable over months to years.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

The individual functional connectome is unique and stable over months to years.

Neuroimage. 2019 Feb 02;:

Authors: Horien C, Shen X, Scheinost D, Constable RT

Abstract
Functional connectomes computed from fMRI provide a means to characterize individual differences in the patterns of BOLD synchronization across regions of the entire brain. Using four resting-state fMRI datasets with a wide range of ages, we show that individual differences of the functional connectome are stable across 3 months to 1-2 years (and even detectable at above-chance levels across 3 years). Medial frontal and frontoparietal networks appear to be both unique and stable, resulting in high ID rates, as did a combination of these two networks. We conduct analyses demonstrating that these results are not driven by head motion. We also show that edges contributing the most to a successful ID tend to connect nodes in the frontal and parietal cortices, while edges contributing the least tend to connect cross-hemispheric homologs. Our results demonstrate that the functional connectome is stable across years and that high ID rates are not an idiosyncratic aspect of a specific dataset, but rather reflect stable individual differences in the functional connectivity of the brain.

PMID: 30721751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sliding window correlation analysis: Modulating window shape for dynamic brain connectivity in resting state.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Sliding window correlation analysis: Modulating window shape for dynamic brain connectivity in resting state.

Neuroimage. 2019 Feb 02;:

Authors: Mokhtari F, Akhlaghi MI, Simpson SL, Wu G, Laurienti PJ

Abstract
The sliding window correlation (SWC) analysis is a straightforward and common approach for evaluating dynamic functional connectivity. Despite the fact that sliding window analyses have been long used, there are still considerable technical issues associated with the approach. A great effort has recently been dedicated to investigate the window setting effects on dynamic connectivity estimation. In this direction, tapered windows have been proposed to alleviate the effect of sudden changes associated with the edges of rectangular windows. Nevertheless, the majority of the windows exploited to estimate brain connectivity tend to suppress dynamic correlations, especially those with faster variations over time. Here, we introduced a window named modulated rectangular (mRect) to address the suppressing effect associated with the conventional windows. We provided a frequency domain analysis using simulated time series to investigate how sliding window analysis (using the regular window functions, e.g. rectangular and tapered windows) may lead to unwanted spectral modulations, and then we showed how this issue can be alleviated through the mRect window. Moreover, we created simulated dynamic network data with altering states over time using simulated fMRI time series, to examine the performance of different windows in tracking network states. We quantified the state identification rate of different window functions through the Jaccard index, and observed superior performance of the mRect window compared to the conventional window functions. Overall, the proposed window function provides an approach that improves SWC estimations, and thus the subsequent inferences and interpretations based on the connectivity network analyses.

PMID: 30721750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting state connectivity differences in eyes open versus eyes closed conditions.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Resting state connectivity differences in eyes open versus eyes closed conditions.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Feb 05;:

Authors: Agcaoglu O, Wilson T, Wang YP, Stephen J, Calhoun VD

Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly collected during the resting state. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is very practical and applicable for a wide range of study populations. Rs-fMRI is usually collected in at least one of three different conditions/tasks, eyes closed (EC), eyes open (EO), or eyes fixated on an object (EO-F). Several studies have shown that there are significant condition-related differences in the acquired data. In this study, we compared the functional network connectivity (FNC) differences assessed via group independent component analysis on a large rs-fMRI dataset collected in both EC and EO-F conditions, and also investigated the effect of covariates (e.g., age, gender, and social status score). Our results indicated that task condition significantly affected a wide range of networks; connectivity of visual networks to themselves and other networks was increased during EO-F, while EC was associated with increased connectivity of auditory and sensorimotor networks to other networks. In addition, the association of FNC with age, gender, and social status was observed to be significant only in the EO-F condition (though limited as well). However, statistical analysis did not reveal any significant effect of interaction between eyes status and covariates. These results indicate that resting-state condition is an important variable that may limit the generalizability of clinical findings using rs-fMRI.

PMID: 30720907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Different Brain Activation after Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints and Single Acupoint in Hypertension Patients: An Rs-fMRI Study Based on ReHo Analysis.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Different Brain Activation after Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints and Single Acupoint in Hypertension Patients: An Rs-fMRI Study Based on ReHo Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:5262896

Authors: Zhang J, Cai X, Wang Y, Zheng Y, Qu S, Zhang Z, Yao Z, Chen G, Tang C, Huang Y

Abstract
Background: Acupuncture is proved to be effective on hypertension by numerous studies and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) is a widely used technique to study its mechanism. Along with lower blood pressure, patients with hypertension receiving acupuncture also presented improvement in function of cognition, emotion, language, sematic sensation, and so on. This study was a primary study to explore the acting path of acupuncture at combined acupoints in stimulated brain areas related to such functions.
Methods: In this research, regional homogeneity (ReHo) was applied to analyze the Rs-fMRI image data of brain activities after acupuncture at LR3, KI3, and LR3+KI3 and to compare the differences of functional brain activities between stimulating combined acupoints and single acupoint under pathological conditions. A total of thirty hypertension patients underwent Rs-fMRI scanning before acupuncture treatment and then were randomly divided into three groups following random number table, the LR3 group (3 males and 7 females), the KI3 group (3 males and 7 females), and the LR3+ KI3 group (4 males and 6 females) for needling, respectively. When the 30-min treatment finished, they received a further Rs-fMRI scanning. The Rs-fMRI data before and after the acupuncture treatment were analyzed through ReHo.
Results: Compared with preacupuncture, respectively, ReHo values increased in Brodmann areas (BAs) 3, 18, and 40 and decreased in BAs 7 and 31 in LR3+ KI3 group. However, ReHo values only decreased in BA7 of KI3 group while the results showed no significant difference of brain regions in LR3 group between pre- and postacupuncture. Compared with LR3 group, LR3+KI3 group exhibited decreased ReHo values in BAs 7, 9, and 31. Meanwhile, compared with KI3 group, LR3+KI3 group exhibited increased ReHo values in the BAs 2, 18, 30, and 40 and decreased ReHo values in BA13.
Conclusion: Combined acupoints of LR3 and KI3 could act on wider brain areas than the sum of single acupoints, whose functions include emotional processing, cognition, somatic sensation, spatial orientation, language production, and vision.

PMID: 30719061 [PubMed]

Acupuncture Enhances Communication between Cortices with Damaged White Matters in Poststroke Motor Impairment.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Acupuncture Enhances Communication between Cortices with Damaged White Matters in Poststroke Motor Impairment.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:4245753

Authors: Han X, Bai L, Sun C, Niu X, Ning Y, Chen Z, Li Y, Li K, Lyu D, Fu C, Cui F, Chen Z, Tan Z, Tang L, Zou Y

Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of motor disability. Acupuncture is an effective therapeutic strategy for poststroke motor impairment. However, its mechanism is still elusive. Twenty-two stroke patients having a right-hemispheric subcortical infarct and 22 matched healthy controls were recruited to undergo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The resting-state fMRI was implemented before and after needling at GB34 (Yanglingquan). The stroke patients presented a substantially reduced fractional anisotropy value in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), corticospinal tract, and corpus callosum. The structural integrity of the frontoparietal part of the SLF (SLF-FP) correlated with the motor scores of lower limbs in stroke patients. This corticocortical association bundle originated from the premotor cortex (PM) and the adjacent supplementary motor area (SMA), known as secondary motor areas, and terminated in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG). After acupuncture intervention, the corresponding functional connectivity between the PM/SMA and SMG was enhanced in stroke patients compared with healthy controls. These findings suggested that the integrity of the SLF is a potential neuroimaging biomarker for motor disability of lower limbs following a stroke. Acupuncture could increase the communication between the cortices connected by the impaired white matter tracts, implying the neural mechanism underlying the acupuncture intervention.

PMID: 30719060 [PubMed]

Tracking perceptual decision mechanisms through changes in interhemispheric functional connectivity in human visual cortex.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Tracking perceptual decision mechanisms through changes in interhemispheric functional connectivity in human visual cortex.

Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 04;9(1):1242

Authors: Sousa T, Duarte JV, Costa GN, Kemper VG, Martins R, Goebel R, Castelo-Branco M

Abstract
The role of long-range integration mechanisms underlying visual perceptual binding and their link to interhemispheric functional connectivity, as measured by fMRI, remains elusive. Only inferences on anatomical organization from resting state data paradigms not requiring coherent binding have been achieved. Here, we used a paradigm that allowed us to study such relation between perceptual interpretation and functional connectivity under bistable interhemispheric binding vs. non-binding of visual surfaces. Binding occurs by long-range perceptual integration of motion into a single object across hemifields and non-binding reflects opponent segregation of distinct moving surfaces into each hemifield. We hypothesized that perceptual integration vs. segregation of surface motion, which is achieved in visual area hMT+, is modulated by changes in interhemispheric connectivity in this region. Using 7T fMRI, we found that perceptual long-range integration of bistable motion can be tracked by changes in interhemispheric functional connectivity between left/right hMT+. Increased connectivity was tightly related with long-range perceptual integration. Our results indicate that hMT+ interhemispheric functional connectivity reflects perceptual decision, suggesting its pivotal role on long-range disambiguation of bistable physically constant surface motion. We reveal for the first time, at the scale of fMRI, a relation between interhemispheric functional connectivity and decision based perceptual binding.

PMID: 30718636 [PubMed - in process]

Segmented Echo Planar Imaging Improves Detection of Subcortical Functional Connectivity Networks in the Rat Brain.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Segmented Echo Planar Imaging Improves Detection of Subcortical Functional Connectivity Networks in the Rat Brain.

Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 04;9(1):1397

Authors: Tambalo S, Scuppa G, Bifone A

Abstract
Susceptibility artifacts in the vicinity of aural and nasal cavities result in significant signal drop-out and image distortion in echo planar imaging of the rat brain. These effects may limit the study of resting state functional connectivity in deep brain regions. Here, we explore the use of segmented EPI for resting state fMRI studies in the rat, and assess the relative merits of this method compared to single shot EPI. Sequences were evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, geometric distortions, data driven detection of resting state networks and group level correlations of time series. Multishot imaging provided improved SNR, temporal SNR and reduced geometric distortion in deep areas, while maintaining acceptable overall image quality in cortical regions. Resting state networks identified by independent component analysis were consistent across methods, but multishot EPI provided a more robust and accurate delineation of connectivity patterns involving deep regions typically affected by susceptibility artifacts. Importantly, segmented EPI showed reduced between-subject variability and stronger statistical significance of pairwise correlations at group level over the whole brain and in particular in subcortical regions. Multishot EPI may represent a valid alternative to snapshot methods in functional connectivity studies, particularly for the investigation of subcortical regions and deep gray matter nuclei.

PMID: 30718628 [PubMed - in process]

Brain songs framework used for discovering the relevant timescale of the human brain.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Brain songs framework used for discovering the relevant timescale of the human brain.

Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 04;10(1):583

Authors: Deco G, Cruzat J, Kringelbach ML

Abstract
A key unresolved problem in neuroscience is to determine the relevant timescale for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics across the whole brain. While resting state fMRI reveals networks at an ultraslow timescale (below 0.1 Hz), other neuroimaging modalities such as MEG and EEG suggest that much faster timescales may be equally or more relevant for discovering spatiotemporal structure. Here, we introduce a novel way to generate whole-brain neural dynamical activity at the millisecond scale from fMRI signals. This method allows us to study the different timescales through binning the output of the model. These timescales can then be investigated using a method (poetically named brain songs) to extract the spacetime motifs at a given timescale. Using independent measures of entropy and hierarchy to characterize the richness of the dynamical repertoire, we show that both methods find a similar optimum at a timescale of around 200 ms in resting state and in task data.

PMID: 30718478 [PubMed - in process]

Atypical intrinsic neural timescale in autism.

Thu, 02/07/2019 - 00:02
Related Articles

Atypical intrinsic neural timescale in autism.

Elife. 2019 Feb 05;8:

Authors: Watanabe T, Rees G, Masuda N

Abstract
How long neural information is stored in a local brain area reflects functions of that region and is often estimated by the magnitude of the autocorrelation of intrinsic neural signals in the area. Here, we investigated such intrinsic neural timescales in high-functioning adults with autism and examined whether local brain dynamics reflected their atypical behaviours. By analysing resting-state fMRI data, we identified shorter neural timescales in the sensory/visual cortices and a longer timescale in the right caudate in autism. The shorter intrinsic timescales in the sensory/visual areas were correlated with the severity of autism, whereas the longer timescale in the caudate was associated with cognitive rigidity. These observations were confirmed from neurodevelopmental perspectives and replicated in two independent cross-sectional datasets. Moreover, the intrinsic timescale was correlated with local grey matter volume. This study shows that functional and structural atypicality in local brain areas is linked to higher-order cognitive symptoms in autism.

PMID: 30717827 [PubMed - in process]

GLOBAL PDF-BASED TEMPORAL NON-LOCAL MEANS FILTERING REVEALS INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN CONNECTIVITY.

Wed, 02/06/2019 - 09:02
Related Articles

GLOBAL PDF-BASED TEMPORAL NON-LOCAL MEANS FILTERING REVEALS INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN CONNECTIVITY.

Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging. 2018 Apr;2018:15-19

Authors: Li J, Choi S, Joshi AA, Wisnowski JL, Leahy RM

Abstract
Characterizing functional brain connectivity using resting fMRI is challenging due to the relatively small BOLD signal contrast and low SNR. Gaussian filtering tends to undermine the individual differences detected by analysis of BOLD signal by smoothing signals across boundaries of different functional areas. Temporal non-local means (tNLM) filtering denoises fMRI data while preserving spatial structures but the kernel and parameters for tNLM filter need to be chosen carefully in order to achieve optimal results. Global PDF-based tNLM filtering (GPDF) is a new, data-dependent optimized kernel function for tNLM filtering which enables us to perform global filtering with improved noise reduction effects without blurring adjacent functional regions.

PMID: 30713593 [PubMed]