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Reorganisation of Brain Hubs across Altered States of Consciousness.

Thu, 02/27/2020 - 20:55
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Reorganisation of Brain Hubs across Altered States of Consciousness.

Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 25;10(1):3402

Authors: Vatansever D, Schröter M, Adapa RM, Bullmore ET, Menon DK, Stamatakis EA

Abstract
Patterns of functional interactions across distributed brain regions are suggested to provide a scaffold for the conscious processing of information, with marked topological alterations observed in loss of consciousness. However, establishing a firm link between macro-scale brain network organisation and conscious cognition requires direct investigations into neuropsychologically-relevant architectural modifications across systematic reductions in consciousness. Here we assessed both global and regional disturbances to brain graphs in a group of healthy participants across baseline resting state fMRI as well as two distinct levels of propofol-induced sedation. We found a persistent modular architecture, yet significant reorganisation of brain hubs that formed parts of a wider rich-club collective. Furthermore, the reduction in the strength of rich-club connectivity was significantly associated with the participants' performance in a semantic judgment task, indicating the importance of this higher-order topological feature for conscious cognition. These results highlight a remarkable interplay between global and regional properties of brain functional interactions in supporting conscious cognition that is relevant to our understanding of clinical disorders of consciousness.

PMID: 32099008 [PubMed - in process]

Increased on-state cortico-mesencephalic functional connectivity in Parkinson disease with freezing of gait.

Wed, 02/26/2020 - 20:54
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Increased on-state cortico-mesencephalic functional connectivity in Parkinson disease with freezing of gait.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2020 Feb 19;72:31-36

Authors: Lench DH, Embry A, Hydar A, Hanlon CA, Revuelta G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate ON-state resting state functional connectivity (FC) from the mesencephalic locomotor regions (MLR) to distributed sensorimotor cortical regions in patients with Freezing of Gait (FOG) and its association with gait performance.
METHODS: 54 individuals with PD were recruited for this study (50% of whom had FOG). All individuals received a resting state functional MRI in the ON state, and underwent a series of gait assessments during single and dual task conditions. FC with the MLR was calculated using a whole brain seed to voxel approach wherein the left and right MLR seeds were extracted from a published atlas. General linear regression was used to determine differences in connectivity between the individuals with ('freezers') and without ('non-freezers') FOG as well as the correlation between MLR connectivity and gait performance in the freezers.
RESULTS: Freezers had significantly higher MLR connectivity to a network of sensorimotor regions compared to non-freezers. Additionally, among the freezers, higher FC with these regions was related to longer single-task and dual-task performance. There were no regions in which non-freezers had higher connectivity than freezers (p < 0.05, FWE corrected clusters for all analyses).
CONCLUSION: These data support the hypothesis that freezers have significantly higher ON-state FC between the MLR and a network of cortical structures than non-freezers. Additionally, this elevated connectivity is directly related to worsening FOG severity. These data add to a theoretical foundation which suggests that cortical hyperconnectivity to the MLR is central to the underlying pathophysiology of FOG.

PMID: 32097881 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Random Forest Classification of Alcohol Use Disorder Using fMRI Functional Connectivity, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Impulsivity Measures.

Wed, 02/26/2020 - 20:54
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Random Forest Classification of Alcohol Use Disorder Using fMRI Functional Connectivity, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Impulsivity Measures.

Brain Sci. 2020 Feb 20;10(2):

Authors: Kamarajan C, Ardekani BA, Pandey AK, Kinreich S, Pandey G, Chorlian DB, Meyers JL, Zhang J, Bermudez E, Stimus AT, Porjesz B

Abstract
Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are known to manifest a variety of neurocognitive impairments that can be attributed to alterations in specific brain networks. The current study aims to identify specific features of brain connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and impulsivity traits that can classify adult males with AUD (n = 30) from healthy controls (CTL, n = 30) using the Random Forest (RF) classification method. The predictor variables were: (i) fMRI-based within-network functional connectivity (FC) of the Default Mode Network (DMN), (ii) neuropsychological scores from the Tower of London Test (TOLT), and the Visual Span Test (VST), and (iii) impulsivity factors from the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). The RF model, with a classification accuracy of 76.67%, identified fourteen DMN connections, two neuropsychological variables (memory span and total correct scores of the forward condition of the VST), and all impulsivity factors as significantly important for classifying participants into either the AUD or CTL group. Specifically, the AUD group manifested hyperconnectivity across the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex as well as between the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule, while showing hypoconnectivity in long-range anterior-posterior and interhemispheric long-range connections. Individuals with AUD also showed poorer memory performance and increased impulsivity compared to CTL individuals. Furthermore, there were significant associations among FC, impulsivity, neuropsychological performance, and AUD status. These results confirm the previous findings that alterations in specific brain networks coupled with poor neuropsychological functioning and heightened impulsivity may characterize individuals with AUD, who can be efficiently identified using classification algorithms such as Random Forest.

PMID: 32093319 [PubMed]

Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation of resting-state fMRI in primary nocturnal enuresis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation of resting-state fMRI in primary nocturnal enuresis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2020 Feb 24;:

Authors: Jiang K, Wang J, Zheng A, Li L, Yi Y, Ding L, Li H, Dong X, Zang Y

Abstract
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) have similar symptoms e.g. inattention and dysfunction of working memory. We investigate disorder-specific abnormal activity by using the simple resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) metric amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF). 18 ADHD, NE and TDC were examined by RS-fMRI and the child behavior checklist (CBCL) test. One-way ANOVA were used to compare the ALFF values of the three groups and post-hoc was done. We conducted Pearson correlation analysis on the results of the three groups' scales with ALFF values at the discrepant brain areas after then. Significant group effect was found in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL), and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). There was no shared abnormal region for ADHD and NE. Specially, ADHD showed increased ALFF in the bilateral MPFC, left ITG, and CAL and showed decreased ALFF in the left MTG. The children with NE showed increased ALFF in the left IPL. This study reveals the brain mechanism of cognitive changes on ADHD and NE which provides neuroimaging basis for behavioral differences among different diseases.

PMID: 32092172 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Earliest amyloid and tau deposition modulate the influence of limbic networks during closed-loop hippocampal downregulation.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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Earliest amyloid and tau deposition modulate the influence of limbic networks during closed-loop hippocampal downregulation.

Brain. 2020 Feb 24;:

Authors: Skouras S, Torner J, Andersson P, Koush Y, Falcon C, Minguillon C, Fauria K, Alpiste F, Blenow K, Zetterberg H, Gispert JD, Molinuevo JL, ALFA Study

Abstract
Research into hippocampal self-regulation abilities may help determine the clinical significance of hippocampal hyperactivity throughout the pathophysiological continuum of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of amyloid-β peptide 42 (amyloid-β42) and phosphorylated tau on the patterns of functional connectomics involved in hippocampal downregulation. We identified 48 cognitively unimpaired participants (22 with elevated CSF amyloid-β peptide 42 levels, 15 with elevated CSF phosphorylated tau levels, mean age of 62.705 ± 4.628 years), from the population-based 'Alzheimer's and Families' study, with baseline MRI, CSF biomarkers, APOE genotyping and neuropsychological evaluation. We developed a closed-loop, real-time functional MRI neurofeedback task with virtual reality and tailored it for training downregulation of hippocampal subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Neurofeedback performance score, cognitive reserve score, hippocampal volume, number of apolipoprotein ε4 alleles and sex were controlled for as confounds in all cross-sectional analyses. First, using voxel-wise multiple regression analysis and controlling for CSF biomarkers, we identified the effect of healthy ageing on eigenvector centrality, a measure of each voxel's overall influence based on iterative whole-brain connectomics, during hippocampal CA1 downregulation. Then, controlling for age, we identified the effects of abnormal CSF amyloid-β42 and phosphorylated tau levels on eigenvector centrality during hippocampal CA1 downregulation. Across subjects, our main findings during hippocampal downregulation were: (i) in the absence of abnormal biomarkers, age correlated with eigenvector centrality negatively in the insula and midcingulate cortex, and positively in the inferior temporal gyrus; (ii) abnormal CSF amyloid-β42 (<1098) correlated negatively with eigenvector centrality in the anterior cingulate cortex and primary motor cortex; and (iii) abnormal CSF phosphorylated tau levels (>19.2) correlated with eigenvector centrality positively in the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate and somatosensory cortex, and negatively in the precuneus and orbitofrontal cortex. During resting state functional MRI, similar eigenvector centrality patterns in the cingulate had previously been associated to CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and dementia patients. Using the developed closed-loop paradigm, we observed such patterns, which are characteristic of advanced disease stages, during a much earlier presymptomatic phase. In the absence of CSF biomarkers, our non-invasive, interactive, adaptive and gamified neuroimaging procedure may provide important information for clinical prognosis and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. We have released the developed paradigm and analysis pipeline as open-source software to facilitate replication studies.

PMID: 32091109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

European Academy of Neurology guideline on the diagnosis of coma and other disorders of consciousness.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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European Academy of Neurology guideline on the diagnosis of coma and other disorders of consciousness.

Eur J Neurol. 2020 Feb 23;:

Authors: Kondziella D, Bender A, Diserens K, van Erp W, Estraneo A, Formisano R, Laureys S, Naccache L, Ozturk S, Rohaut B, Sitt JD, Stender J, Tiainen M, Rossetti AO, Gosseries O, Chatelle C, EAN Panel on Coma, Disorders of Consciousness

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with acquired brain injury and acute or prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) are challenging. Evidence to support diagnostic decisions on coma and other DoC is limited but accumulating. This guideline provides the state-of-the-art evidence regarding the diagnosis of DoC, summarizing data from bedside examination techniques, functional neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG).
METHODS: Sixteen members of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) Scientific Panel on Coma and Chronic Disorders of Consciousness, representing 10 European countries, reviewed the scientific evidence for the evaluation of coma and other DoC using standard bibliographic measures. Recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The guideline was endorsed by the EAN.
RESULTS: Besides a comprehensive neurological examination, the following suggestions are made: probe for voluntary eye movements using a mirror; repeat clinical assessments in the subacute and chronic setting, using the Coma Recovery Scale - Revised; use the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score instead of the Glasgow Coma Scale in the acute setting; obtain clinical standard EEG; search for sleep patterns on EEG, particularly rapid eye movement sleep and slow-wave sleep; and, whenever feasible, consider positron emission tomography, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), active fMRI or EEG paradigms and quantitative analysis of high-density EEG to complement behavioral assessment in patients without command following at the bedside.
CONCLUSIONS: Standardized clinical evaluation, EEG-based techniques and functional neuroimaging should be integrated for multimodal evaluation of patients with DoC. The state of consciousness should be classified according to the highest level revealed by any of these three approaches.

PMID: 32090418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

MALINI (Machine Learning in NeuroImaging): A MATLAB toolbox for aiding clinical diagnostics using resting-state fMRI data.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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MALINI (Machine Learning in NeuroImaging): A MATLAB toolbox for aiding clinical diagnostics using resting-state fMRI data.

Data Brief. 2020 Apr;29:105213

Authors: Lanka P, Rangaprakash D, Gotoor SSR, Dretsch MN, Katz JS, Denney TS, Deshpande G

Abstract
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) has been extensively used for diagnostic classification because it does not require task compliance and is easier to pool data from multiple imaging sites, thereby increasing the sample size. A MATLAB-based toolbox called Machine Learning in NeuroImaging (MALINI) for feature extraction and disease classification is presented. The MALINI toolbox extracts functional and effective connectivity features from preprocessed rs-fMRI data and performs classification between healthy and disease groups using any of 18 popular and widely used machine learning algorithms that are based on diverse principles. A consensus classifier combining the power of multiple classifiers is also presented. The utility of the toolbox is illustrated by accompanying data consisting of resting-state functional connectivity features from healthy controls and subjects with various brain-based disorders: autism spectrum disorder from autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE), Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from ADHD-200, and post-traumatic stress disorder and post-concussion syndrome acquired in-house. Results of classification performed on the above datasets can be obtained from the main article titled "Supervised machine learning for diagnostic classification from large-scale neuroimaging datasets" [1]. The data was divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous splits, such that 80% could be used for training, model building and cross-validation, while the remaining 20% of the data could be used as a hold-out independent test data for replication of the classification performance, to ensure the robustness of the classifiers to population variance in image acquisition site and age of the sample.

PMID: 32090157 [PubMed]

Altered spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with ophthalmectomy: an resting-state fMRI study.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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Altered spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with ophthalmectomy: an resting-state fMRI study.

Int J Ophthalmol. 2020;13(2):263-270

Authors: Zhang B, Li B, Liu RQ, Shu YQ, Min YL, Yuan Q, Zhu PW, Lin Q, Ye L, Shao Y

Abstract
AIM: To use the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) method to explore the underlying functional network brain-activity in patients with ophthalmectomy.
METHODS: A total of 32 ophthalmic surgery patients (10 women and 22 men), and 32 healthy subjects (10 women and 22 men) highly matched in gender, age, and the same operation method. Everyone experienced a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The spontaneous brain activity could be assessed by DC. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationships between the average DC signal values and behavior performance in different regions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to differentiate between ophthalmectomy patients and healthy controls (HCs).
RESULTS: Compared with HCs, ophthalmectomy patients had greatly reduced DC values in left lingual gyrus, bilateral lingual lobe, left cingulate gyrus, and increased DC values of left cerebellum posterior lobe, left middle frontal gyrus1, right supramarginal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus2, right middle frontal gyrus. However, we did not find that there was a correlation between the average DC values from various brain regions and clinical manifestations.
CONCLUSION: Dysfunction may be caused by ophthalmectomy in lots of cerebral areas, which may show the potential pathological mechanism of ophthalmectomy and it is beneficial to clinical diagnosis.

PMID: 32090036 [PubMed]

An fMRI Study of the Effects of Vibroacoustic Stimulation on Functional Connectivity in Patients with Insomnia.

Tue, 02/25/2020 - 20:51
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An fMRI Study of the Effects of Vibroacoustic Stimulation on Functional Connectivity in Patients with Insomnia.

Sleep Disord. 2020;2020:7846914

Authors: Zabrecky G, Shahrampour S, Whitely C, Alizadeh M, Conklin C, Wintering N, Doghramji K, Zhan T, Mohamed F, Newberg A, Monti D

Abstract
Background: It is well known that vibratory and auditory stimuli from vehicles such as cars and trains can help induce sleep. More recent literature suggests that specific types of vibratory and acoustic stimulation might help promote sleep, but this has not been tested with neuroimaging. Thus, the purpose of this study was to observe the effects of vibroacoustic stimulation (providing both vibratory and auditory stimuli) on functional connectivity changes in the brain using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and compare these changes to improvements in sleep in patients with insomnia.
Methods: For this study, 30 patients with insomnia were randomly assigned to receive one month of a vibroacoustic stimulation or be placed in a waitlist control. Patients were evaluated pre- and postprogram with qualitative sleep questionnaires and measurement of sleep duration with an actigraphy watch. In addition, patients underwent rs-fMRI to assess functional connectivity.
Results: The results demonstrated that those patients receiving the vibroacoustic stimulation had significant improvements in measured sleep minutes as well as in scores on the Insomnia Severity Index questionnaire. In addition, significant changes were noted in functional connectivity in association with the vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, thalamus, sensorimotor area, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex.
Conclusions: The results of this study show that vibroacoustic stimulation alters the brain's functional connectivity as well as improves sleep in patients with insomnia.

PMID: 32089894 [PubMed]

Evidence of regional associations between age-related inter-individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity and cortical thinning revealed through a multi-level analysis.

Mon, 02/24/2020 - 20:50
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Evidence of regional associations between age-related inter-individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity and cortical thinning revealed through a multi-level analysis.

Neuroimage. 2020 Feb 20;:116662

Authors: Vieira BH, Rondinoni C, Garrido Salmon CE

Abstract
Normal aging incurs functional and anatomical alterations in the brain. Cortical thinning, age-related alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and reductions in fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) are key components of brain aging that can be studied by neuroimaging. However, the level of association between these processes has not been fully established. We performed an analysis at multiple-levels, i.e. region or connection and modality, to investigate whether the evidence for the effect of aging on fALFF, RSFC and cortical thickness are associated in a large cohort. Our results show that there is a positive association between the level of evidence of age-related effects in all three in the brain. We also demonstrate that on a regional basis the association between RSFC alterations and cortical atrophy may be either positive or negative, which may indicate compensatory mechanisms predicted by the Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC).

PMID: 32088317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dynamic functional connectivity and graph theory metrics in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy reveal a preference for brain states with a lower functional connectivity, segregation and integration.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 20:49
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Dynamic functional connectivity and graph theory metrics in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy reveal a preference for brain states with a lower functional connectivity, segregation and integration.

Neurobiol Dis. 2020 Feb 19;:104808

Authors: Christiaen E, Goossens MG, Descamps B, Larsen LE, Boon P, Raedt R, Vanhove C

Abstract
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. The involvement of abnormal functional brain networks in the development of epilepsy and its comorbidities has been demonstrated by electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in patients with epilepsy. This longitudinal study investigated changes in dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) and network topology during the development of epilepsy using the intraperitoneal kainic acid (IPKA) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Resting state functional magnetic resonance images (rsfMRI) of 20 IPKA animals and 7 healthy control animals were acquired before and 1, 3, 6, 10 and 16 weeks after status epilepticus (SE) under medetomidine anaesthesia using a 7 T MRI system. Starting from 17 weeks post-SE, hippocampal EEG was recorded to determine the mean daily seizure frequency of each animal. Dynamic FC was assessed by calculating the correlation matrices between fMRI time series of predefined regions of interest within a sliding window of 50 s using a step length of 2 s. The matrices were classified into 6 FC states, each characterized by a correlation matrix, using k-means clustering. In addition, several time-variable graph theoretical network metrics were calculated from the time-varying correlation matrices and classified into 6 states of functional network topology, each characterized by a combination of network metrics. Our results showed that FC states with a lower mean functional connectivity, lower segregation and integration occurred more often in IPKA animals compared to control animals. Functional connectivity also became less variable during epileptogenesis. In addition, average daily seizure frequency was positively correlated with percentage dwell time (i.e. how often a state occurs) in states with high mean functional connectivity, high segregation and integration, and with the number of transitions between states, while negatively correlated with percentage dwell time in states with a low mean functional connectivity, low segregation and low integration. This indicates that animals that dwell in states of higher functional connectivity, higher segregation and higher integration, and that switch more often between states, have more seizures.

PMID: 32087287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alterations and test-retest reliability of functional connectivity network measures in cerebral small vessel disease.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 20:49
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Alterations and test-retest reliability of functional connectivity network measures in cerebral small vessel disease.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2020 Feb 22;:

Authors: Gesierich B, Tuladhar AM, Ter Telgte A, Wiegertjes K, Konieczny MJ, Finsterwalder S, Hübner M, Pirpamer L, Koini M, Abdulkadir A, Franzmeier N, Norris DG, Marques JP, Zu Eulenburg P, Ewers M, Schmidt R, de Leeuw FE, Duering M

Abstract
While structural network analysis consolidated the hypothesis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) being a disconnection syndrome, little is known about functional changes on the level of brain networks. In patients with genetically defined SVD (CADASIL, n = 41) and sporadic SVD (n = 46), we independently tested the hypothesis that functional networks change with SVD burden and mediate the effect of disease burden on cognitive performance, in particular slowing of processing speed. We further determined test-retest reliability of functional network measures in sporadic SVD patients participating in a high-frequency (monthly) serial imaging study (RUN DMC-InTENse, median: 8 MRIs per participant). Functional networks for the whole brain and major subsystems (i.e., default mode network, DMN; fronto-parietal task control network, FPCN; visual network, VN; hand somatosensory-motor network, HSMN) were constructed based on resting-state multi-band functional MRI. In CADASIL, global efficiency (a graph metric capturing network integration) of the DMN was lower in patients with high disease burden (standardized beta = -.44; p [corrected] = .035) and mediated the negative effect of disease burden on processing speed (indirect path: std. beta = -.20, p = .047; direct path: std. beta = -.19, p = .25; total effect: std. beta = -.39, p = .02). The corresponding analyses in sporadic SVD showed no effect. Intraclass correlations in the high-frequency serial MRI dataset of the sporadic SVD patients revealed poor test-retest reliability and analysis of individual variability suggested an influence of age, but not disease burden, on global efficiency. In conclusion, our results suggest that changes in functional connectivity networks mediate the effect of SVD-related brain damage on cognitive deficits. However, limited reliability of functional network measures, possibly due to age-related comorbidities, impedes the analysis in elderly SVD patients.

PMID: 32087047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identifying and removing widespread signal deflections from fMRI data: Rethinking the global signal regression problem.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Identifying and removing widespread signal deflections from fMRI data: Rethinking the global signal regression problem.

Neuroimage. 2020 Feb 18;:116614

Authors: Aquino KM, Fulcher BD, Parkes L, Sabaroedin K, Fornito A

Abstract
One of the most controversial procedures in the analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data is global signal regression (GSR): the removal, via linear regression, of the mean signal averaged over the entire brain. On one hand, the global mean signal contains variance associated with respiratory, scanner-, and motion-related artifacts, and its removal via GSR improves various quality-control metrics, enhances the anatomical specificity of functional-connectivity patterns, and can increase the behavioral variance explained by such patterns. On the other hand, GSR alters the distribution of regional signal correlations in the brain, can induce artifactual anticorrelations, may remove real neural signal, and can distort case-control comparisons of functional-connectivity measures. Global signal fluctuations can be identified visually from a matrix of colour-coded signal intensities, called a carpet plot, in which rows represent voxels and columns represent time. Prior to GSR, large, periodic bands of coherent signal changes that affect most of the brain are often apparent; after GSR, these apparently global changes are greatly diminished. Here, using three independent datasets, we show that reordering carpet plots to emphasize cluster structure in the data reveals a greater diversity of spatially widespread signal deflections (WSDs) than previously thought. Their precise form varies across time and participants, and GSR is only effective in removing specific kinds of WSDs. We present an alternative, iterative correction method called Diffuse Cluster Estimation and Regression (DiCER), that identifies representative signals associated with large clusters of coherent voxels. DiCER is more effective than GSR at removing diverse WSDs as visualized in carpet plots, reduces correlations between functional connectivity and head-motion estimates, reduces inter-individual variability in global correlation structure, and results in comparable or improved identification of canonical functional-connectivity networks. Using task fMRI data across 47 contrasts from 7 tasks in the Human Connectome Project, we also present evidence that DiCER is more successful than GSR in preserving the spatial structure of expected task-related activation patterns. Our findings indicate that care must be exercised when examining WSDs (and their possible removal) in rsfMRI data, and that DiCER is a viable alternative to GSR for removing anatomically widespread and temporally coherent signals. All code for implementing DiCER and replicating our results is available at https://github.com/BMHLab/DiCER.

PMID: 32084564 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional Connectivity of the Anterior and Posterior Hippocampus: Differential Effects of Glucose in Younger and Older Adults.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Functional Connectivity of the Anterior and Posterior Hippocampus: Differential Effects of Glucose in Younger and Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2020;12:8

Authors: Peters R, White DJ, Cornwell BR, Scholey A

Abstract
The hippocampus features structurally and functionally distinct anterior and posterior segments. Relatively few studies have examined how these change during aging or in response to pharmacological interventions. Alterations in hippocampal connectivity and changes in glucose regulation have each been associated with cognitive decline in aging. A distinct line of research suggests that administration of glucose can lead to a transient improvement in hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we probe age, glucose and human cognition with a special emphasis on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the hippocampus along its longitudinal axis to the rest of the brain. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design 32 healthy adults (16 young and 16 older) ingested a drink containing 25 g glucose or placebo across two counter balanced sessions. They then underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and cognitive testing. There was a clear dissociation in the effects of glucose by age. Magnitude change in rsFC from posterior hippocampus (pHPC) to medial frontal cortex (mPFC) was correlated with individual glucose regulation and gains in performance on a spatial navigation task. Our results demonstrate that glucose administration can attenuate cognitive performance deficits in older adults with impaired glucose regulation and suggest that increases in pHPC-mPFC rsFC are beneficial for navigation task performance in older participants.

PMID: 32082138 [PubMed]

The Decline in Intrinsic Connectivity Between the Salience Network and Locus Coeruleus in Older Adults: Implications for Distractibility.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

The Decline in Intrinsic Connectivity Between the Salience Network and Locus Coeruleus in Older Adults: Implications for Distractibility.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2020;12:2

Authors: Lee TH, Kim SH, Katz B, Mather M

Abstract
We examined functional connectivity between the locus coeruleus (LC) and the salience network in healthy young and older adults to investigate why people become more prone to distraction with age. Recent findings suggest that the LC plays an important role in focusing processing on salient or goal-relevant information from multiple incoming sensory inputs (Mather et al., 2016). We hypothesized that the connection between LC and the salience network declines in older adults, and therefore the salience network fails to appropriately filter out irrelevant sensory signals. To examine this possibility, we used resting-state-like fMRI data, in which all task-related activities were regressed out (Fair et al., 2007; Elliott et al., 2019) and performed a functional connectivity analysis based on the time-course of LC activity. Older adults showed reduced functional connectivity between the LC and salience network compared with younger adults. Additionally, the salience network was relatively more coupled with the frontoparietal network than the default-mode network in older adults compared with younger adults, even though all task-related activities were regressed out. Together, these findings suggest that reduced interactions between LC and the salience network impairs the ability to prioritize the importance of incoming events, and in turn, the salience network fails to initiate network switching (e.g., Menon and Uddin, 2010; Uddin, 2015) that would promote further attentional processing. A chronic lack of functional connection between LC and salience network may limit older adults' attentional and executive control resources.

PMID: 32082136 [PubMed]

Differential Regional Brain Spontaneous Activity in Subgroups of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Differential Regional Brain Spontaneous Activity in Subgroups of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2020;14:2

Authors: Zhou QH, Wang K, Zhang XM, Wang L, Liu JH

Abstract
Background: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has a high conversion risk to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aMCI patients may have only a memory deficit (single-domain-aMCI, sd-aMCI) or deficits in multiple cognitive domains (multiple-domain-aMCI, md-aMCI). However, differences in intrinsic brain activity between these two sub-types remain unclear. Method: Neuropsychological and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 24 patients with sd-aMCI, 23 patients with md-aMCI, and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We used the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) to characterize the intensity of spontaneous brain activity. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post hoc tests was performed to determine the between-group differences in fALFF. Results: We found higher fALFF in left-sided superior-to-middle frontal gyri and middle-to-inferior temporal gyri in sd-aMCI compared to both the md-aMCI and HCs. Conversely, a lower fALFF was found in the left inferior parietal lobe in both the md-aMCI and sd-aMCI patients. The fALFF values in the left middle and inferior temporal gyri were correlated with cognitive performances. Conclusion: The gradual reduction in the left inferior parietal lobe from single to multiple domain aMCI suggest a functional inefficiency underlying cognitive impairment, while increased activity in the frontal and temporal gyri in sd-aMCI rather than md-aMCI might indicate functional compensation. This study indicates differential functional profiles in the sd-aMCI and md-aMCI, which may be helpful for the prediction of the future conversion of aMCI to AD.

PMID: 32082131 [PubMed]

Resting-State Functional Connectivity Estimated With Hierarchical Bayesian Diffuse Optical Tomography.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Resting-State Functional Connectivity Estimated With Hierarchical Bayesian Diffuse Optical Tomography.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:32

Authors: Aihara T, Shimokawa T, Ogawa T, Okada Y, Ishikawa A, Inoue Y, Yamashita O

Abstract
Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been generally assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) thanks to its high spatial resolution. However, fMRI has several disadvantages such as high cost and low portability. In addition, fMRI may not be appropriate for people with metal or electronic implants in their bodies, with claustrophobia and who are pregnant. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT), a method of neuroimaging using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to reconstruct three-dimensional brain activity images, offers a non-invasive alternative, because fNIRS as well as fMRI measures changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations and, in addition, fNIRS is free of above disadvantages. We recently proposed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) DOT algorithm and verified its performance in terms of task-related brain responses. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the HB DOT in terms of estimating RSFC. In 20 healthy males (21-38 years old), 10 min of resting-state data was acquired with 3T MRI scanner or high-density NIRS on different days. The NIRS channels consisted of 96 long (29-mm) source-detector (SD) channels and 56 short (13-mm) SD channels, which covered bilateral frontal and parietal areas. There were one and two resting-state runs in the fMRI and fNIRS experiments, respectively. The reconstruction performances of our algorithm and the two currently prevailing algorithms for DOT were evaluated using fMRI signals as a reference. Compared with the currently prevailing algorithms, our HB algorithm showed better performances in both the similarity to fMRI data and inter-run reproducibility, in terms of estimating the RSFC.

PMID: 32082110 [PubMed]

Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus in North Korean Refugees with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus in North Korean Refugees with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 21;10(1):3194

Authors: Jeon S, Lee YJ, Park I, Kim N, Kim S, Jun JY, Yoo SY, Lee SH, Kim SJ

Abstract
In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), functional connectivity (FC) between the thalamus and other brain areas has yet to be comprehensively investigated. The present study explored resting state FC (rsFC) of thalamus and its associations with trauma-related features. The included subjects were North Korean refugees with PTSD (n = 23), trauma-exposed North Korean refugees without PTSD (trauma-exposed control [TEC] group, n = 22), and South Korean healthy controls (HCs) without traumatic experiences (HC group, n = 40). All participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) procedures using the bilateral thalamus as seeds. In the TEC group, the negative rsFC between each thalamus and its contralateral postcentral cortex was stronger relative to the PTSD and HC groups, while positive rsFC between the left thalamus and left precentral cortex was stronger in the HC group compared to the PTSD and TEC groups. Thalamo-postcentral rsFC was positively correlated with the CAPS total score in the TEC group, and with the number of traumatic experiences in the PTSD group. The present study identified the difference of thalamic rsFC alterations among traumatized refugees and HCs. Negative rsFC between the thalamus and somatosensory cortices might be compensatory changes after multiple traumatic events in refugees.

PMID: 32081883 [PubMed - in process]

Cerebellar dentate nucleus functional connectivity with cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and memory: a seed-based approach.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48

Cerebellar dentate nucleus functional connectivity with cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and memory: a seed-based approach.

Neurobiol Aging. 2020 Jan 15;:

Authors: Olivito G, Serra L, Marra C, Di Domenico C, Caltagirone C, Toniolo S, Cercignani M, Leggio M, Bozzali M

Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by specific patterns of gray and white matter damage and cognitive/behavioral manifestations. The cerebellum has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of AD. Because the cerebellum is known to have strong functional connectivity (FC) with associative cerebral cortex regions, it is possible to hypothesize that it is incorporated into intrinsic FC networks relevant to cognitive manifestation of AD. In the present study, the cerebellar dentate nucleus, the largest cerebellar nucleus and the major output channel to the cerebral cortex, was chosen as the region of interest to test potential cerebellocerebral FC alterations and correlations with patients' memory impairment in a group of patients with AD. Compared to controls, patients with AD showed an increase in FC between the dentate nucleus and regions of the lateral temporal lobe. This study demonstrates that lower memory performances in AD may be related to altered FC within specific cerebellocortical functional modules, thus suggesting the cerebellar contribution to AD pathophysiology and typical memory dysfunctions.

PMID: 32081466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Organization of the Human Corpus Callosum Estimated by Intrinsic Functional Connectivity with White-Matter Functional Networks.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 02:48
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The Organization of the Human Corpus Callosum Estimated by Intrinsic Functional Connectivity with White-Matter Functional Networks.

Cereb Cortex. 2020 Feb 20;:

Authors: Wang P, Meng C, Yuan R, Wang J, Yang H, Zhang T, Zaborszky L, Alvarez TL, Liao W, Luo C, Chen H, Biswal BB

Abstract
The corpus callosum is the commissural bridge of white-matter bundles important for the human brain functions. Previous studies have analyzed the structural links between cortical gray-matter networks and subregions of corpus callosum. While meaningful white-matter functional networks (WM-FNs) were recently reported, how these networks functionally link with distinct subregions of corpus callosum remained unknown. The current study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the Human Connectome Project test-retest data to identify 10 cerebral WM-FNs in 119 healthy subjects and then parcellated the corpus callosum into distinct subregions based on the functional connectivity between each callosal voxel and above networks. Our results demonstrated the reproducible identification of WM-FNs and their links with known gray-matter functional networks across two runs. Furthermore, we identified reliably parcellated subregions of the corpus callosum, which might be involved in primary and higher order functional systems by functionally connecting with WM-FNs. The current study extended our knowledge about the white-matter functional signals to the intrinsic functional organization of human corpus callosum, which could help researchers understand the neural substrates underlying normal interhemispheric functional connectivity as well as dysfunctions in various mental disorders.

PMID: 32080708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]