Most recent paper

Verbal Learning and Longitudinal Hippocampal Network Connectivity in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery

Fri, 07/08/2022 - 18:00

Front Neurol. 2022 Jun 21;13:854313. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.854313. eCollection 2022.


INTRODUCTION: Learning new verbal information can be impaired in 20-40% of patients after mesial temporal lobe resection. In recent years, understanding epilepsy as a brain network disease, and investigating the relationship between large-scale resting networks and cognition has led to several advances. Aligned studies suggest that it is the integrity of the hippocampal connectivity with these large-scale networks what is relevant for cognition, with evidence showing a functional and structural heterogeneity along the long axis hippocampus bilaterally.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to examine whether pre-operative resting-state connectivity along the long hippocampal axis is associated with verbal learning decline after anterior temporal lobe resection.

METHODS: Thirty-one patients with epilepsy who underwent an anterior temporal lobe resection were pre-surgically scanned at 3-tesla, and pre/post-surgery evaluated for learning deficits using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT). Eighteen controls matched by age, gender and handedness were also scanned and evaluated with the RAVLT. We studied the functional connectivity along the (anterior/posterior) long axis hippocampal subregions and resting-state functionally-defined brain networks involved in learning [executive (EXE), dorsal attention (DAN) and default-mode (DMN) networks]. Functional connectivity differences between the two groups of patients (learning intact or with learning decline) and controls were investigated with MANOVA and discriminant analysis.

RESULTS: There were significant differences in the pattern of hippocampal connectivity among the groups. Regarding the anterior connectivity hippocampal pattern, our data showed an increase of connectivity in the pathological side with the DAN (p = 0.011) and the EXE (p = 0.008) when comparing learning-decline vs. learning-intact patients. Moreover, the non-pathological side showed an increase in the anterior connectivity pattern with the DAN (p = 0.027) between learning-decline vs. learning-intact patients. In contrast, the posterior hippocampus showed a reduction of connectivity in the learning-decline patients with the DMN, both in the pathological (p = 0.004) and the non-pathological sides (p = 0.036). Finally, the discriminant analysis based on the pre-operative connectivity pattern significantly differentiated the learning-decline patients from the other groups (p = 0.019).

CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal bilateral connectivity disruptions along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampi with resting-state networks, which could be key to identify those patients at risk of verbal learning decline after epilepsy surgery.

PMID:35800085 | PMC:PMC9253296 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2022.854313

Evidence for preserved insulin responsiveness in the aging rat brain

Thu, 07/07/2022 - 18:00

Geroscience. 2022 Jul 8. doi: 10.1007/s11357-022-00618-z. Online ahead of print.


Insulin appears to exert salutary effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, brain insulin resistance has been proposed to play a role in brain aging and dementia but is conceptually complex and unlikely to fit classic definitions established in peripheral tissues. Thus, we sought to characterize brain insulin responsiveness in young (4-5 months) and old (24 months) FBN male rats using a diverse set of assays to determine the extent to which insulin effects in the CNS are impaired with age. When performing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in rats, intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of insulin in old animals improved peripheral insulin sensitivity by nearly two-fold over old controls and comparable to young rats, suggesting preservation of this insulin-triggered response in aging per se (p < 0.05). We next used an imaging-based approach by comparing ICV vehicle versus insulin and performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate age- and insulin-related changes in network connectivity within the default mode network. In aging, lower connectivity between the mesial temporal (MT) region and other areas, as well as reduced MT signal complexity, was observed in old rats, which correlated with greater cognitive deficits in old. Despite these stark differences, ICV insulin failed to elicit any significant alteration to the BOLD signal in young rats, while a significant deviation of the BOLD signal was observed in older animals, characterized by augmentation in regions of the septal nucleus and hypothalamus, and reduction in thalamus and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, ex vivo stimulation of hippocampus with 10 nM insulin revealed increased Akt activation in young (p < 0.05), but not old rats. Despite similar circulating levels of insulin and IGF-1, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of these ligands were reduced with age. Thus, these data highlight the complexity of capturing brain insulin action and demonstrate preserved or heightened brain responses to insulin with age, despite dampened canonical signaling, thereby suggesting impaired CNS input of these ligands may be a feature of reduced brain insulin action, providing further rationale for CNS replacement strategies.

PMID:35798912 | DOI:10.1007/s11357-022-00618-z

Frontopolar cortex shapes brain network structure across prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex

Thu, 07/07/2022 - 18:00

Prog Neurobiol. 2022 Jul 4:102314. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2022.102314. Online ahead of print.


Primate frontopolar cortex (FPC), occupied by area 10, sits atop a functional hierarchy of prefrontal cortical regions, yet little is known about its involvement in wider cortical networks. Here we examined resting-state-functional-connectivity (rsfc) in rhesus monkeys with intact or lesioned FPC to identify cortical regions associated with FPC. We present a network of FPC-specific regions of interest (ROIs), whose connectivity was affected by lesion of FPC but not by lesion of neighbouring prefrontal cortex (Principal sulcus). This network comprised 'core ROIs' with direct anatomical connections to FPC, located in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and superior temporal gyrus, and 'peripheral ROIs' well connected to the core network. We further show that the principal effect of a lesion to FPC was to cause a profound disturbance of the functional connectivity of posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We therefore suggest that FPC, posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex comprise a network of interacting cortical areas whose interactions may be critical for mediating the contribution of FPC to decision making.

PMID:35798212 | DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2022.102314

Gait in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease, Pre-Dementia and Dementia: A Systematic Review

Thu, 07/07/2022 - 18:00

Int J Stroke. 2022 Jul 7:17474930221114562. doi: 10.1177/17474930221114562. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between gait, cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), and cognitive impairments in aging are not well-understood - despite their common co-occurrence.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies of gait impairment in CSVD, pre-dementia, and dementia and to identify key gaps for future research and novel pathways toward intervention.

METHODS: A PRISMA-guided search strategy was implemented in PubMed to identify relevant studies. Potential articles (n=263) published prior to December 1st, 2021 were screened by two reviewers. Studies with sample sizes >20 and including some adult over >65 years (n=202) were included.

RESULTS: The key findings were that 1) adverse gait and cognitive outcomes were associated with several (rather than select) CSVD pathologies distributed across the brain, and 2) poor gait and CSVD pathologies were more strongly associated with dementia with a vascular, rather than an Alzheimer's disease-related, cause.

DISCUSSION: A better understanding of the interrelationships between gait performance in CSVD, pre-dementia and dementia requires studies examining a) comprehensive patterns in the clinical manifestations of CSVD, b) racially/ethnically diverse samples, c) samples followed for extended periods of time or across the adult lifespan, d) non-traditional CSVD neuroimaging markers (e.g., resting-state fMRI), and e) continuous (e.g., wearable sensors) and complex (e.g., dual-task) walking performance.

PMID:35797006 | DOI:10.1177/17474930221114562

Altered resting-state functional connectivity of default mode network in brachioradial pruritus

Thu, 07/07/2022 - 18:00

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2022 Jul 7. doi: 10.1111/jdv.18411. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic pruritus (CP) have a low quality of life, thus it is important to gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies at rest (rs-fMRI) have shown that mainly areas associated with the default mode network (DMN), sensorimotor (SMN), frontoparietal (FPN) and salience networks (SN) are involved in the processing of itch in patients with chronic pruritus (CP), as well as the cortico-striatal circuit, which is involved in the motoric preparation of scratching. rs-fMRI studies on functional connectivity (FC) patterns of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with inflammatory atopic dermatitis (AD) or with neuropathic brachioradial pruritus (BRP) compared to healthy controls (HC) are lacking.

OBJECTIVES: The main goals of this study were to investigate whether functional connectivity within networks and areas associated with itch detection and processing are altered in patients with AD and BRP compared to matched healthy controls by rsfMRI, respectively.

METHODS: Patients with AD (n = 28) and with BRP (n = 28) were compared to corresponding matched healthy controls by rsfMRI. Group specific RSNs were identified by independent component analysis (ICA) and between-group differences in the RSNs were analyzed by dual regression technique. Seed-based functional connectivity was analyzed in several itch-related brain regions belonging to the DMN, SN and FPN, respectively.

RESULTS: ICA and seed-based analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity in BRP compared to HC specially within the DMN including the precuneus and cingulate cortex. For AD patients in comparison to HC, as well as when BRP and AD patients when compared directly, no significant FC differences at rest were seen.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point towards decreased FC particularly in the DMN at rest in patients with BRP. These results seem to indicate that central connectivity patterns at rest differentially encode itch in BRP and AD.

PMID:35796634 | DOI:10.1111/jdv.18411

Neural regeneration therapy after spinal cord injury induces unique brain functional reorganizations in rhesus monkeys

Wed, 07/06/2022 - 18:00

Ann Med. 2022 Dec;54(1):1867-1883. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2022.2089728.


PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) destroys the sensorimotor pathway and induces brain plasticity. However, the effect of treatment-induced spinal cord tissue regeneration on brain functional reorganization remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the large-scale functional interactions in the brains of adult female Rhesus monkeys with injured and regenerated thoracic spinal cord.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with Granger Causality analysis (GCA) and motor behaviour analysis were used to assess the causal interaction between sensorimotor cortices, and calculate the relationship between causal interaction and hindlimb stepping in nine Rhesus monkeys undergoing lesion-induced spontaneous recovery (injured, n = 4) and neurotrophin-3/chitosan transplantation-induced regeneration (NT3-chitosan, n = 5) after SCI.

RESULTS: The results showed that the injured and NT3-chitosan-treated animals had distinct spatiotemporal features of brain functional reorganization. The spontaneous recovery followed the model of "early intra-hemispheric reorganization dominant, late inter-hemispheric reorganization dominant", whereas regenerative therapy animals showed the opposite trend. Although the variation degree of information flow intensity was consistent, the tendency and the relationship between local neuronal activity properties and coupling strength were different between the two groups. In addition, the injured and NT3-chitosan-treated animals had similar motor adjustments but various relationship modes between motor performance and information flow intensity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that brain functional reorganization induced by regeneration therapy differed from spontaneous recovery after SCI. The influence of unique changes in brain plasticity on the therapeutic effects of future regeneration therapy strategies should be considered. Key messagesNeural regeneration elicited a unique spatiotemporal mode of brain functional reorganization in the spinal cord injured monkeys, and that regeneration does not simply reverse the process of brain plasticity induced by spinal cord injury (SCI).Independent "properties of local activity - intensity of information flow" relationships between the injured and treated animals indicating that spontaneous recovery and regenerative therapy exerted different effects on the reorganization of the motor network after SCI.A specific information flow from the left thalamus to the right insular can serve as an indicator to reflect a heterogeneous "information flow - motor performance" relationship between injured and treated animals at similar motor adjustments.

PMID:35792748 | DOI:10.1080/07853890.2022.2089728

The dynamic shaping of local cortical circuitry by sex and age, and its relation to Pattern Comparison Processing Speed

Wed, 07/06/2022 - 18:00

J Neurophysiol. 2022 Jul 6. doi: 10.1152/jn.00252.2022. Online ahead of print.


Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that the strength of local neural interactions decreases with distance. Here we extend that line of research to evaluate effects of sex and age on local cortical circuitry in 6 cortical areas (superior frontal, precentral, postcentral, superior parietal, inferior parietal, lateral occipital) using data acquired from 1,054 healthy young adults who participated in the Human Connectome Project. We confirmed previous findings that the strength of zero-lag correlations between prewhitened, resting-state, blood level oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) fMRI time series decreased with distance locally, and documented that the rate of decrease with distance ("spatial steepness") (a) was progressively lower from anterior to posterior areas, (b) was greater in women, especially in anterior areas, (c) increased with age, particularly for women, (d) was significantly correlated with percent inhibition, and (e) was positively and highly significantly correlated with pattern comparison processing speed (PCPS). A hierarchical tree clustering analysis of this dependence of PCPS on spatial steepness revealed a differential organization in processing that information between the two hemispheres, namely a more independent vs. a more integrative processing in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. These findings document sex and age differences in dynamic local cortical interactions, and provide evidence that spatial sharpening of these interactions may underlie cognitive processing speed differently organized in the two hemispheres.

PMID:35792497 | DOI:10.1152/jn.00252.2022

Increased cortical-medulla functional connectivity is correlated with swallowing in dysphagia patients with subacute infratentorial stroke

Wed, 07/06/2022 - 18:00

Neuroimage Clin. 2022 Jul 1;35:103104. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103104. Online ahead of print.


Patients with infratentorial stroke (IS) exhibit more severe dysphagia and a higher risk of aspiration than patients with supratentorial stroke. Nevertheless, a large proportion of patients with IS regain swallowing function within 6 months; however, the neural mechanism for this recovery remains unclear. We aimed to investigate possible neuroplastic changes involved using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and their relation to swallowing function. We assessed 21 patients with IS (mean age: 59.9 ± 11.1 years) exhibiting dysphagia in the subacute phase and 21 healthy controls (mean age: 57.1 ± 7.8 years). Patient evaluations were based on the functional oral intake scale (FOIS), videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), and fMRI. Temporal swallowing measures and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) were obtained using VFSS. Whole-brain-medulla resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) was calculated and compared between patients and healthy controls. The rsFCs were also correlated with functional measures within the patient group. In patients with IS, whole-brain-medulla rsFCs were significantly higher in the precuneus, the left and right precentral gyrus, and the right supplementary motor area compared to those in healthy controls (P < 0.001, family-wise error-corrected cluster-level P < 0.05). The rsFCs to the medulla for the left (r = -0.507, P = 0.027) and right side (r = -0.503, P = 0.028) precentral gyrus were negatively correlated with the PAS. The rsFC between the left (r = 0.470, P = 0.042) and right (r = 0.459, P = 0.048) precentral gyrus to the medulla was positively correlated with upper esophageal sphincter opening durations (UOD). In addition, PAS was also correlated with UOD (r = -0.638, P = 0.003) whereas the laryngeal closure duration was correlated with the hyoid bone movement duration (r = 0.550, P = 0.015). Patients with IS exhibited overall modulation of cortical-medulla connectivity during the subacute phase. Patients with higher connectivities showed better swallowing performance. These findings support that there is cortical involvement in swallowing regulation after IS and can aid in determining potential treatment targets for dysphagia.

PMID:35792418 | DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103104


Wed, 07/06/2022 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2022 Jul 2:119434. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119434. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Classic psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, and other serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonists evoke acute alterations in perception and cognition. Altered thalamocortical connectivity has been hypothesized to underlie these effects, which is supported by some functional MRI (fMRI) studies. These studies have treated the thalamus as a unitary structure, despite known differential 5-HT2AR expression and functional specificity of different intrathalamic nuclei. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been previously used to identify reliable group-level functional subdivisions of the thalamus from resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data. We build on these efforts with a novel data-maximizing ICA-based approach to examine psilocybin-induced changes in intrathalamic functional organization and thalamocortical connectivity in individual participants.

METHODS: Baseline rsfMRI data (n=38) from healthy individuals with a long-term meditation practice was utilized to generate a statistical template of thalamic functional subdivisions. This template was then applied in a novel ICA-based analysis of the acute effects of psilocybin on intra- and extra-thalamic functional organization and connectivity in follow-up scans from a subset of the same individuals (n=18). We examined correlations with subjective reports of drug effect and compared with a previously reported analytic approach (treating the thalamus as a single functional unit).

RESULTS: Several intrathalamic components showed significant psilocybin-induced alterations in spatial organization, with effects of psilocybin largely localized to the mediodorsal and pulvinar nuclei. The magnitude of changes in individual participants correlated with reported subjective effects. These components demonstrated predominant decreases in thalamocortical connectivity, largely with visual and default mode networks. Analysis in which the thalamus is treated as a singular unitary structure showed an overall numerical increase in thalamocortical connectivity, consistent with previous literature using this approach, but this increase did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS: We utilized a novel analytic approach to discover psilocybin-induced changes in intra- and extra-thalamic functional organization and connectivity of intrathalamic nuclei and cortical networks known to express the 5-HT2AR. These changes were not observed using whole-thalamus analyses, suggesting that psilocybin may cause widespread but modest increases in thalamocortical connectivity that are offset by strong focal decreases in functionally relevant intrathalamic nuclei.

PMID:35792293 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119434

Brain Structural and Functional Dissociated Patterns in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Case-Controlled Retrospective Resting-State fMRI Study

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Front Neurol. 2022 Jun 15;13:895348. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.895348. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the whole-brain global functional connectivity density (gFCD) and gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). However, no study aimed to investigate the associations between the spatial patterns of GMV and gFCD alterations in patients with DCM.

METHODS: Structural data and resting-state functional MRI data of 35 DCM patients and 35 matched healthy controls were collected to assess their gFCD and GMV and investigate gFCD and GMV alterations in patients with DCM and their spatial pattern associations.

RESULTS: In our current study, significant gFCD and GMV differences were observed in some regions of the visual system, sensorimotor cortices, and cerebellum between patients with DCM and healthy controls. In our findings, decreased gFCD was found in areas primarily located at the sensorimotor cortices, while increased gFCD was observed primarily within areas located at the visual system and cerebellum. Decreased GMV was seen in the left thalamus, bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), and left inferior occipital cortices in patients with DCM, while increased GMV was observed in the cerebellum.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that structural and functional alterations independently contributed to the neuropathology of DCM. However, longitudinal studies are still needed to further illustrate the associations between structural deficits and functional alterations underlying the onset of brain abnormalities as DCM develops.

PMID:35785340 | PMC:PMC9240811 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2022.895348

NeoRS: A Neonatal Resting State fMRI Data Preprocessing Pipeline

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Front Neuroinform. 2022 Jun 17;16:843114. doi: 10.3389/fninf.2022.843114. eCollection 2022.


Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has been shown to be a promising tool to study intrinsic brain functional connectivity and assess its integrity in cerebral development. In neonates, where functional MRI is limited to very few paradigms, rsfMRI was shown to be a relevant tool to explore regional interactions of brain networks. However, to identify the resting state networks, data needs to be carefully processed to reduce artifacts compromising the interpretation of results. Because of the non-collaborative nature of the neonates, the differences in brain size and the reversed contrast compared to adults due to myelination, neonates can't be processed with the existing adult pipelines, as they are not adapted. Therefore, we developed NeoRS, a rsfMRI pipeline for neonates. The pipeline relies on popular neuroimaging tools (FSL, AFNI, and SPM) and is optimized for the neonatal brain. The main processing steps include image registration to an atlas, skull stripping, tissue segmentation, slice timing and head motion correction and regression of confounds which compromise functional data interpretation. To address the specificity of neonatal brain imaging, particular attention was given to registration including neonatal atlas type and parameters, such as brain size variations, and contrast differences compared to adults. Furthermore, head motion was scrutinized, and motion management optimized, as it is a major issue when processing neonatal rsfMRI data. The pipeline includes quality control using visual assessment checkpoints. To assess the effectiveness of NeoRS processing steps we used the neonatal data from the Baby Connectome Project dataset including a total of 10 neonates. NeoRS was designed to work on both multi-band and single-band acquisitions and is applicable on smaller datasets. NeoRS also includes popular functional connectivity analysis features such as seed-to-seed or seed-to-voxel correlations. Language, default mode, dorsal attention, visual, ventral attention, motor and fronto-parietal networks were evaluated. Topology found the different analyzed networks were in agreement with previously published studies in the neonate. NeoRS is coded in Matlab and allows parallel computing to reduce computational times; it is open-source and available on GitHub ( NeoRS allows robust image processing of the neonatal rsfMRI data that can be readily customized to different datasets.

PMID:35784189 | PMC:PMC9247272 | DOI:10.3389/fninf.2022.843114

The Bilateral Precuneus as a Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker for Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Support Vector Machine Analysis

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 15;13:923583. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.923583. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While evidence has demonstrated that the default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in the broad-scale cognitive problems that occur in right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE), little is known about alterations in the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in TLE. In this study, we used the NH method to investigate the NH of the DMN in TLE at rest, and an support vector machine (SVM) method for the diagnosis of rTLE.

METHODS: A total of 43 rTLE cases and 42 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Imaging data were analyzed with the NH and SVM methods.

RESULTS: rTLE patients have a decreased NH in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), but increased NH in the bilateral precuneus (PCu) and right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), compared with HCs. We found that rTLE had a longer performance reaction time (RT). No significant correlation was found between abnormal NH values and clinical variables of the patients. The SVM results showed that increased NH in the bilateral PCu as a diagnostic biomarker distinguished rTLE from HCs with an accuracy of 74.12% (63/85), a sensitivity 72.01% (31/43), and a specificity 72.81% (31/42).

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that abnormal NH of the DMN exists in rTLE, and highlights the significance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of cognitive problems occurring in rTLE, and the bilateral PCu as a neuroimaging diagnostic biomarker for rTLE.

PMID:35782449 | PMC:PMC9240203 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.923583

A Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Unmedicated Adolescents With Non-suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors: Evidence From the Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation and Regional Homogeneity Indicator

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 17;13:925672. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.925672. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors are common in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain studies specifically targeting adolescents with MDD and NSSI may provide new insights into suicide warnings in adolescents with MDD.

METHODS: This study examined the whole-brain neural activity in adolescents aged between 12-17 years, 50 unmedicated MDD patients with (nsMDDs) or without NSSI (nnsMDDs), and 25 healthy controls (HCs) participated in this study, and analyzed the correlation between the values of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in significantly different brain regions and the scores of the relevant clinical psychological scale.

RESULTS: Compared with nnsMDDs, nsMDDs had enhanced ALFF values in left middle occipital gyrus and left median cingulate and paracingulate gyri; the fALFF values of the right caudate nucleus was weakened in the nsMDDs; the ReHo values of right middle occipital gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus weakened and the ReHo values of right medial cingulate gyrus enhanced in nsMDDs. And all of differences were statistically significant. In nsMDDs, the value of ALFF in the left calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex was negatively correlated with the score of Children's depression Inventory (CDI); the value of fALFF in the right caudate nucleus was positively correlated with the score of Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideations (BSSI); the value of ReHo in the right middle temporal gyrus was positively correlated with the score of Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC); and the value of ReHo in the right median cingulate and paracingulate gyri was negatively correlated with the score of BSSI.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that in ALFF, fALFF and ReHo, the significant differences between nsMDDs and nnsMDDs are mainly located in default mode network (DMN) and visual network (VN), and there may be brain regions related to NSSI in DMN and VN. The significant differences brain regions in ALFF, fALFF and ReHo between nsMDDs and nnsMDDs were related to the total score of the relevant clinical psychological scale, and may be related to NSSI.

PMID:35782416 | PMC:PMC9247173 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.925672

Rich-club reorganization of functional brain networks in acute mild traumatic brain injury with cognitive impairment

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2022 Jul;12(7):3932-3946. doi: 10.21037/qims-21-915.


BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically characterized by temporally limited cognitive impairment and regarded as a brain connectome disorder. Recent findings have suggested that a higher level of organization named the "rich-club" may play a central role in enabling the integration of information and efficient communication across different systems of the brain. However, the alterations in rich-club organization and hub topology in mTBI and its relationship with cognitive impairment after mTBI have been scarcely elucidated.

METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were collected from 88 patients with mTBI and 85 matched healthy controls (HCs). Large-scale functional brain networks were established for each participant. Rich-club organizations and network properties were assessed and analyzed between groups. Finally, we analyzed the correlations between the cognitive performance and changes in rich-club organization and network properties.

RESULTS: Both mTBI and HCs groups showed significant rich-club organization. Meanwhile, the rich-club organization was aberrant, with enhanced functional connectivity (FC) among rich-club nodes and peripheral regions in acute mTBI. In addition, significant differences in partial global and local network topological property measures were found between mTBI patients and HCs (P<0.01). In patients with mTBI, changes in rich-club organization and network properties were found to be related to early cognitive impairment after mTBI (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that such patterns of disruption and reorganization will provide the basic functional architecture for cognitive function, which may subsequently be used as an earlier biomarker for cognitive impairment after mTBI.

PMID:35782237 | PMC:PMC9246720 | DOI:10.21037/qims-21-915

Memory for the Future: Psychodynamic Approach to Time and Self Through the Default Network

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Front Hum Neurosci. 2022 Jun 16;16:885315. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.885315. eCollection 2022.


Time exists in us, and our self exists in time. Our self is affected and shaped by time to the point that a better understanding of the former can aid the understanding of the latter. Psychoanalysis works through self and time, where the self is composed of the biopsychosocial history (the past) of the individual and able to map a trajectory for the future. The psychoanalytic relationship starts from a "measurement": an active process able to alter the system being measured-the self-continuously built over time. This manuscript, starts from the philosophical and scientific tradition of a proximity between time and self, suggesting a neural overlapping at the Default Network. A historical and scientific background will be introduced, proposing a multidisciplinary dimension that has characterized the birth of psychoanalysis (its past), influencing its present and future in the dialogue with physics and neuroscience. After a historical scientific introduction, a neural entanglement between past and future at the Default Network level will be proposed, tracing a link with the self at the level of this network. This hypothesis will be supported by studies in cognitive neurosciences and functional neuroimaging which have used the resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The ontogenetic development of time perception will be discussed, consistent with self-development and the Default Network's function. The most common form of dementia, the Alzheimer's Disease, in which the perception of time is brutally impaired together with a loss of the self's functions will be proposed to support this idea. Finally, the potential theoretical and clinical significance for psychoanalysis and psychodynamic neurosciences, will be discussed.

PMID:35782047 | PMC:PMC9245038 | DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2022.885315

Cofluctuation analysis reveals aberrant default mode network patterns in adolescents and youths with autism spectrum disorder

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Hum Brain Mapp. 2022 Jul 4. doi: 10.1002/hbm.25986. Online ahead of print.


Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) approaches provide informative estimates of the functional architecture of the brain, and recently-proposed cofluctuation analysis temporally unwraps FC at every moment in time, providing refined information for quantifying brain dynamics. As a brain network disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was characterized by substantial alteration in FC, but the contribution of moment-to-moment-activity cofluctuations to the overall dysfunctional connectivity pattern in ASD remains poorly understood. Here, we used the cofluctuation approach to explore the underlying dynamic properties of FC in ASD, using a large multisite resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) dataset (ASD = 354, typically developing controls [TD] = 446). Our results verified that the networks estimated using high-amplitude frames were highly correlated with the traditional rsFC. Moreover, these frames showed higher average amplitudes in participants with ASD than those in the TD group. Principal component analysis was performed on the activity patterns in these frames and aggregated over all subjects. The first principal component (PC1) corresponds to the default mode network (DMN), and the PC1 coefficients were greater in participants with ASD than those in the TD group. Additionally, increased ASD symptom severity was associated with the increased coefficients, which may result in excessive internally oriented cognition and social cognition deficits in individuals with ASD. Our finding highlights the utility of cofluctuation approaches in prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders and verifies that the aberrant contribution of DMN to rsFC may underline the symptomatology in adolescents and youths with ASD.

PMID:35781734 | DOI:10.1002/hbm.25986

Effects of a single-dose methylphenidate challenge on resting-state functional connectivity in stimulant-treatment naive children and adults with ADHD

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Hum Brain Mapp. 2022 Jul 4. doi: 10.1002/hbm.25981. Online ahead of print.


Prior studies suggest that methylphenidate, the primary pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alters functional brain connectivity. As the neurotransmitter systems targeted by methylphenidate undergo significant alterations throughout development, the effects of methylphenidate on functional connectivity may also be modulated by age. Therefore, we assessed the effects of a single methylphenidate challenge on brain network connectivity in stimulant-treatment naïve children and adults with ADHD. We obtained resting-state functional MRI from 50 boys (10-12 years of age) and 49 men (23-40 years of age) with ADHD (DSM IV, all subtypes), before and after an oral challenge with 0.5 mg/kg methylphenidate; and from 11 boys and 12 men as typically developing controls. Connectivity strength (CS), eigenvector centrality (EC), and betweenness centrality (BC) were calculated for the striatum, thalamus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In line with our hypotheses, we found that methylphenidate decreased measures of connectivity and centrality in the striatum and thalamus in children with ADHD, but increased the same metrics in adults with ADHD. Surprisingly, we found no major effects of methylphenidate in the dACC and PFC in either children or adults. Interestingly, pre-methylphenidate, participants with ADHD showed aberrant connectivity and centrality compared to controls predominantly in frontal regions. Our findings demonstrate that methylphenidate's effects on connectivity of subcortical regions are age-dependent in stimulant-treatment naïve participants with ADHD, likely due to ongoing maturation of dopamine and noradrenaline systems. These findings highlight the importance for future studies to take a developmental perspective when studying the effects of methylphenidate treatment.

PMID:35781371 | DOI:10.1002/hbm.25981

Ultra-slow fMRI fluctuations in the fourth ventricle as a marker of drowsiness

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2022 Jun 30:119424. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119424. Online ahead of print.


Wakefulness levels modulate estimates of functional connectivity (FC), and, if unaccounted for, can become a substantial confound in resting-state fMRI. Unfortunately, wakefulness is rarely monitored due to the need for additional concurrent recordings (e.g., eye tracking, EEG). Recent work has shown that strong fluctuations around 0.05Hz, hypothesized to be CSF inflow, appear in the fourth ventricle (FV) when subjects fall asleep, and that they correlate significantly with the global signal. The analysis of these fluctuations could provide an easy way to evaluate wakefulness in fMRI-only data and improve our understanding of FC during sleep. Here we evaluate this possibility using the 7T resting-state sample from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Our results replicate the observation that fourth ventricle ultra-slow fluctuations (∼0.05Hz) with inflow-like characteristics (decreasing in intensity for successive slices) are present in scans during which subjects did not comply with instructions to keep their eyes open (i.e., drowsy scans). This is true despite the HCP data not being optimized for the detection of inflow-like effects. In addition, time-locked BOLD fluctuations of the same frequency could be detected in large portions of grey matter with a wide range of temporal delays and contribute in significant ways to our understanding of how FC changes during sleep. First, these ultra-slow fluctuations explain half of the increase in global signal that occurs during descent into sleep. Similarly, global shifts in FC between awake and sleep states are driven by changes in this slow frequency band. Second, they can influence estimates of inter-regional FC. For example, disconnection between frontal and posterior components of the Defulat Mode Network (DMN) typically reported during sleep were only detectable after regression of these ultra-slow fluctuations. Finally, we report that the temporal evolution of the power spectrum of these ultra-slow FV fluctuations can help us reproduce sample-level sleep patterns (e.g., a substantial number of subjects descending into sleep 3 minutes following scanning onset), partially rank scans according to overall drowsiness levels, and predict individual segments of elevated drowsiness (at 60 seconds resolution) with 71% accuracy.

PMID:35781079 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119424

Metastability, fractal scaling, and synergistic information processing: what phase relationships reveal about intrinsic brain activity

Tue, 07/05/2022 - 18:00

Neuroimage. 2022 Jun 30:119433. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119433. Online ahead of print.


Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in resting-state fMRI holds promise to deliver candidate biomarkers for clinical applications. However, the reliability and interpretability of dFC metrics remain contested. Despite a myriad of methodologies and resulting measures, few studies have combined metrics derived from different conceptualizations of brain functioning within the same analysis - perhaps missing an opportunity for improved interpretability. Using a complexity-science approach, we assessed the reliability and interrelationships of a battery of phase-based dFC metrics including tools originating from dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and information dynamics approaches. Our analysis revealed novel relationships between these metrics, which allowed us to build a predictive model for integrated information using metrics from dynamical systems and information theory. Furthermore, global metastability - a metric reflecting simultaneous tendencies for coupling and decoupling - was found to be the most representative and stable metric in brain parcellations that included cerebellar regions. Additionally, spatiotemporal patterns of phase-locking were found to change in a slow, non-random, continuous manner over time. Taken together, our findings show that the majority of characteristics of resting-state fMRI dynamics reflect an interrelated dynamical and informational complexity profile, which is unique to each acquisition. This finding challenges the interpretation of results from cross-sectional designs for brain neuromarker discovery, suggesting that individual life-trajectories may be more informative than sample means.

PMID:35781077 | DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119433

Resting-state functional connectivity of salience network in schizophrenia and depression

Fri, 07/01/2022 - 18:00

Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 1;12(1):11204. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-15489-9.


To explore the salience network (SN) functional alterations in schizophrenia and depression, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 29 patients with schizophrenia (SCH), 28 patients with depression (DEP) and 30 healthy controls (HC) were obtained. The SN was derived from data-driven group independent component analysis (gICA). ANCOVA and post hoc tests were performed to discover the FC differences of SN between groups. The ANCOVA demonstrated a significant group effect in FC with right inferior and middle temporal gyrus (ITG and MTG), left caudate, and right precentral gyrus. Post-hoc analyses revealed an opposite altered FC pattern between SN and right ITG and MTG for both patient groups. The DEP group showed a reduced FC between SN and right ITG and MTG compared with HC whereas the SCH group showed an increased FC. In addition, the SCH group showed decreased FC between SN and left caudate, and enhanced FC between SN and right precentral gyrus compared to the other two groups. Our findings suggest distinct FC of SN in schizophrenia and depression, supporting that the resting-state FC pattern of SN may be a transdiagnostic difference between depression and schizophrenia and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of these two disorders.

PMID:35778603 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-15489-9