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Bootstrapping promotes the RSFC-behavior associations: An application of individual cognitive traits prediction.

Tue, 03/17/2020 - 21:27
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Bootstrapping promotes the RSFC-behavior associations: An application of individual cognitive traits prediction.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2020 Mar 16;:

Authors: Wei L, Jing B, Li H

Abstract
Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) records enormous functional interaction information between any pair of brain nodes, which enriches the individual-phenotypic prediction. To reduce high-dimensional features, correlation analysis is a common way for feature selection. However, resting state fMRI signal exhibits typically low signal-to-noise ratio and the correlation analysis is sensitive to outliers and data distribution, which may bring unstable features to prediction. To alleviate this problem, a bootstrapping-based feature selection framework was proposed and applied to connectome-based predictive modeling, support vector regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and Ridge regression to predict a series of cognitive traits based on Human Connectome Project data. To systematically investigate the influences of different parameter settings on the bootstrapping-based framework, 216 parameter combinations were evaluated and the best performance among them was identified as the final prediction result for each cognitive trait. By using the bootstrapping methods, the best prediction performances outperformed the baseline method in all four prediction models. Furthermore, the proposed framework could effectively reduce the feature dimension by retaining the more stable features. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework is an easy-to-use and effective method to improve RSFC prediction of cognitive traits and is highly recommended in future RSFC-prediction studies.

PMID: 32173976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Does higher sampling rate (multiband + SENSE) improve group statistics - An example from social neuroscience block design at 3T.

Tue, 03/17/2020 - 21:27
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Does higher sampling rate (multiband + SENSE) improve group statistics - An example from social neuroscience block design at 3T.

Neuroimage. 2020 Mar 12;:116731

Authors: Bhandari R, Kirilina E, Caan M, Suttrup J, De Sanctis T, De Angelis L, Keysers C, Gazzola V

Abstract
Multiband (MB) or Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisition schemes allow the acquisition of MRI signals from more than one spatial coordinate at a time. Commercial availability has brought this technique within the reach of many neuroscientists and psychologists. Most early evaluation of the performance of MB acquisition employed resting state fMRI or the most basic tasks. In this study, we tested whether the advantages of using MB acquisition schemes generalize to group analyses using a cognitive task more representative of typical cognitive neuroscience applications. Twenty-three subjects were scanned on a Philips 3 T scanner using five sequences up to eight-fold acceleration with MB-factors 1 to 4, SENSE factors up to 2 and corresponding TRs of 2.45s down to 0.63s, while they viewed (i) movie blocks showing complex actions with hand object interactions and (ii) control movie blocks without hand object interaction. Data were processed using a widely used analysis pipeline implemented in SPM12 including the unified segmentation and canonical HRF modelling. Using random effects group-level, voxel-wise analysis we found that all sequences were able to detect the basic action observation network known to be recruited by our task. The highest t-values were found for sequences with MB4 acceleration. For the MB1 sequence, a 50% bigger voxel volume was needed to reach comparable t-statistics. The group-level t-values for resting state networks (RSNs) were also highest for MB4 sequences. Here the MB1 sequence with larger voxel size did not perform comparable to the MB4 sequence. Altogether, we can thus recommend the use of MB4 (and SENSE 1.5 or 2) on a Philips scanner when aiming to perform group-level analyses using cognitive block design fMRI tasks and voxel sizes in the range of cortical thickness (e.g. 2.7 mm isotropic). While results will not be dramatically changed by the use of multiband, our results suggest that MB will bring a moderate but significant benefit.

PMID: 32173409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Causes and Consequences of Diagnostic Heterogeneity in Depression: Paths to Discovering Novel Biological Depression Subtypes.

Tue, 03/17/2020 - 21:27
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Causes and Consequences of Diagnostic Heterogeneity in Depression: Paths to Discovering Novel Biological Depression Subtypes.

Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 28;:

Authors: Lynch CJ, Gunning FM, Liston C

Abstract
Depression is a highly heterogeneous syndrome that bears only modest correlations with its biological substrates, motivating a renewed interest in rethinking our approach to diagnosing depression for research purposes and new efforts to discover subtypes of depression anchored in biology. Here, we review the major causes of diagnostic heterogeneity in depression, with consideration of both clinical symptoms and behaviors (symptomatology and trajectory of depressive episodes) and biology (genetics and sexually dimorphic factors). Next, we discuss the promise of using data-driven strategies to discover novel subtypes of depression based on functional neuroimaging measures, including dimensional, categorical, and hybrid approaches to parsing diagnostic heterogeneity and understanding its biological basis. The merits of using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity techniques for subtyping are considered along with a set of technical challenges and potential solutions. We conclude by identifying promising future directions for defining neurobiologically informed depression subtypes and leveraging them in the future for predicting treatment outcomes and informing clinical decision making.

PMID: 32171465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered fMRI-derived functional connectivity in patients with high-tension glaucoma.

Sun, 03/15/2020 - 21:24
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Altered fMRI-derived functional connectivity in patients with high-tension glaucoma.

J Neuroradiol. 2020 Mar 10;:

Authors: Wang B, Yan T, Zhou J, Xie Y, Qiu J, Yi W, Weizhao L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: High-tension glaucoma (HTG) is associated with functional changes in the brain, and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is one of the major causes.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of high IOP on the brain in patients with HTG by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with HTG and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent IOP examination and rs-fMRI scan. Voxel-wise FC values were obtained between the Brodmann Area (BA) 17 (primary visual cortex) and the rest of the brain, two-sample t test was performed between HTG group and HCs. Correlation analysis was performed between FC and clinical information.
RESULTS: Compared with HCs, HTG patients demonstrated decreased FC between BA 17 and the right precuneus gyrus, decreased FC between BA 17 and the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) (GRF corrected at voxel level p < 0.001 and cluster level p < 0.05, two-tailed). FC between BA 17 and the right SFG showed significantly negative correlation with right eyes' IOP and mean IOP.
CONCLUSION: HTG patients had abnormal FC changes between the visual cortex and multiple functional brain regions related to visual sense, memory consolidation and cognitive processing, which provided image support for the pathophysiology research of HTG, and revealed new targets for the accurate treatment of HTG.

PMID: 32169470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetic influence on ageing-related changes in resting-state brain functional networks in healthy adults: a systematic review.

Sun, 03/15/2020 - 21:24
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Genetic influence on ageing-related changes in resting-state brain functional networks in healthy adults: a systematic review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Mar 10;:

Authors: Foo H, Mather KA, Jiang J, Thalamuthu A, Wen W, Sachdev PS

Abstract
This systematic review examines the genetic and epigenetic factors associated with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in healthy human adult brains across the lifespan, with a focus on genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). There were 58 studies included. The key findings are: (i) genetic factors have a low to moderate contribution; (ii) the apolipoprotein E ε2/3/4 polymorphism was the most studied genetic variant, with the APOE-ε4 allele most consistently associated with deficits of the default mode network, but there were insufficient studies to determine the relationships with other AD candidate risk genes; (iii) a single genome-wide association study identified several variants related to RSFC; (iv) two epigenetic independent studies showed a positive relationship between blood DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter and RSFC measures. Thus, there is emerging evidence that genetic and epigenetic variation influence the brain's functional organisation and connectivity over the adult lifespan. However, more studies are required to elucidate the roles genetic and epigenetic factors play in RSFC measures across the adult lifespan.

PMID: 32169413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Relationships between multiple dimensions of executive functioning and resting-state networks in adults.

Sun, 03/15/2020 - 21:24
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Relationships between multiple dimensions of executive functioning and resting-state networks in adults.

Neuropsychologia. 2020 Mar 10;:107418

Authors: Roye S, Castagna PJ, Calamia M, De Vito AN, Lee TH, Greening SG

Abstract
The current study sought to examine the functional connectivity of resting state networks (RSNs) as they relate to the individual domains of executive functioning (EF). Based on the Unity and Diversity model (Miyake et al., 2000), EF performance was captured using a three-factor model proposed by Karr et al. (2018), which includes inhibition, shifting, and fluency. Publicly available data was used from the Nathan Kline Institute -Rockland project was used. Of the 722 participants who completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), which was used to measure EF performance, 269 of these individuals completed resting state fMRI scans. First, a confirmatory factory analysis replicated Karr et al. (2018) revealing three components: inhibition, shifting and fluency. Next, RSNs were identified across the sample using an Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and was compared to previously established intrinsic connectivity networks (Laird et al., 2011). Finally, dual regression was used to analyze the relationships between the functional connectivity of RSNs and EF performance, which indicated that RSNs were differentially associated with inhibition and shifting. Better inhibition was related to increased connectivity between the left striatum and the attentional control network. Better shifting performance was related to increased connectivity between the pre- and postcentral gyri and the speech and sensorimotor network. These results highlight individual differences within these RSNs that are unique to the literature, as non-EF confounds are mitigated within the current measurements of EF performance.

PMID: 32169318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Frontoparietal and salience network alterations in obsessive–compulsive disorder: insights from independent component and sliding time window analyses

Sat, 03/14/2020 - 21:23
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Frontoparietal and salience network alterations in obsessive–compulsive disorder: insights from independent component and sliding time window analyses

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2020 Mar 13;45(3):190038

Authors: Gürsel DA, Reinholz L, Bremer B, Schmitz-Koep B, Franzmeier N, Avram M, Koch K

Abstract
Background: Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies commonly report alterations in 3 core networks in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) — the frontoparietal network, the default mode network and the salience network — defined by functionally connected infraslow oscillations in ongoing brain activity. However, most of these studies observed static functional connectivity in the brains of patients with OCD.
Methods: To investigate dynamic functional connectivity alterations and widen the evidence base toward the triple network model in OCD, we performed group-based independent component and sliding time window analyses in 49 patients with OCD and 41 healthy controls.
Results: The traditional independent component analysis showed alterations in the left frontoparietal network as well as between the left and right frontoparietal networks in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. For dynamic functional connectivity, the sliding time window approach revealed peak dysconnectivity between the left and right frontoparietal networks and between the left frontoparietal network and the salience network.
Limitations: The number of independent components, noise in the resting-state fMRI images, the heterogeneity of the OCD sample, and comorbidities and medication status in the patients could have biased the results.
Conclusion: Disrupted modulation of these intrinsic brain networks may contribute to the pathophysiology of OCD.

PMID: 32167267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Processing speed and attention training modifies autonomic flexibility: A mechanistic intervention study.

Sat, 03/14/2020 - 21:23
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Processing speed and attention training modifies autonomic flexibility: A mechanistic intervention study.

Neuroimage. 2020 Mar 09;:116730

Authors: Lin F, Tao Y, Chen Q, Anthony M, Zhang Z, Tadin D, Heffner KL

Abstract
Adaptation capacity is critical for maintaining cognition, yet it is understudied in groups at risk for dementia. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is critical for neurovisceral integration and is a key contributor to adaptation capacity. To determine the central nervous system's top-down regulation on ANS, we conducted a mechanistic randomized controlled trial study, using a 6-week processing speed and attention (PS/A) targeted intervention. Eighty-four older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were randomized to a 6-week PS/A-targeted intervention or an active control without PS/A. Utilizing repeated measures (i.e., PS/A test different from the intervention, resting and cognitive task-based ECG, and resting fMRI) at baseline, immediately post-intervention (post-test), and 6-month follow-up, we aimed to test whether there is a causal influence of PS/A on vagal control of ANS via their shared central neural pathways in aMCI. We indexed vagal control of ANS using high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) extracted from ECG data. Functional brain connectivity patterns were extracted from fMRI using advanced statistical tools. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement in PS/A, HF-HRV, salience network (SN), central executive network (CEN), and frontal parietal network (FPN) connectivity at post-test; the effect on SN, CEN, and FPN remained at 6-month follow-up. Changes in PS/A and SN connectivity significantly predicted change in HF-HRV from baseline to post-test and/or 6-month-follow-up. Age, neurodegeneration, nor sex did not affect these relationships. This work provides novel support for top-down regulation of PS/A and associated SN on vagal control of ANS. Intervening PS/A may be a viable approach for promoting adaptation capacity in groups at risk for dementia.

PMID: 32165263 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Examining Brain Maturation during Adolescence Using Graph Laplacian Learning Based Fourier Transform.

Sat, 03/14/2020 - 21:23
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Examining Brain Maturation during Adolescence Using Graph Laplacian Learning Based Fourier Transform.

J Neurosci Methods. 2020 Mar 09;:108649

Authors: Wang J, Xiao L, Wilson TW, Stephen JM, Calhoun VD, Wang YP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that adolescence is a crucial developmental period of continued brain growth and change. Motivated by both achievements in graph signal processing and recent evidence that some brain areas act as hubs connecting functionally specialized systems, we propose an approach to detect these regions from a spectral analysis perspective. In particular, as the human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence, we evaluate functional network difference among age groups from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements. New Methods: We treated these measurements as graph signals defined on the parcellated functional brain regions and proposed a graph Laplacian learning based Fourier Transform (GLFT) to transform the original graph signals into the frequency domain. Eigen-analysis was conducted afterwards to study the behaviors of the corresponding brain regions, which enabled the characterization of brain maturation.
RESULT: We first evaluated our method on the synthetic data and then applied it to resting state and task fMRI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) dataset, comprised of normally developing adolescents from 8 to 22 years of age. The method provided an accuracy of 94.9% in distinguishing different adolescent stages and we detected 13 hubs from resting state fMRI and 16 hubs from task fMRI related to brain maturation. Comparison with Existing Methods: The proposed GLFT demonstrated its superiority over conventional graph Fourier transform and alternative graph Fourier transform with high predictive power.
CONCLUSION: The method provides a powerful approach for extracting brain connectivity patterns and identifying hub regions.

PMID: 32165231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Neural Signature of Parkinsonism in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Multimodal MRI Study Using Parallel ICA.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 21:22
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A Neural Signature of Parkinsonism in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Multimodal MRI Study Using Parallel ICA.

Schizophr Bull. 2020 Mar 12;:

Authors: Wolf RC, Rashidi M, Fritze S, Kubera KM, Northoff G, Sambataro F, Calhoun VD, Geiger LS, Tost H, Hirjak D

Abstract
Motor abnormalities in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have increasingly attracted scientific interest in the past years. However, the neural mechanisms underlying parkinsonism in SSD are unclear. The present multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study examined SSD patients with and without parkinsonism, as defined by a Simpson and Angus Scale (SAS) total score of ≥4 (SAS group, n = 22) or <4 (non-SAS group, n = 22). Parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) was used to examine the covarying components among gray matter volume maps computed from structural MRI (sMRI) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) maps computed from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) patient data. We found a significant correlation (P = .020, false discovery rate [FDR] corrected) between an sMRI component and an rs-fMRI component, which also significantly differed between the SAS and non-SAS group (P = .042, z = -2.04). The rs-fMRI component comprised the cortical sensorimotor network, and the sMRI component included predominantly a frontothalamic/cerebellar network. Across the patient sample, correlations adjusted for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores showed a significant relationship between tremor score and loadings of the cortical sensorimotor network, as well as between glabella-salivation score, frontothalamic/cerebellar and cortical sensorimotor network loadings. These data provide novel insights into neural mechanisms of parkinsonism in SSD. Aberrant bottom-up modulation of cortical motor regions may account for these specific motor symptoms, at least in patients with SSD.

PMID: 32162660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Does the functional or structural damage prevail?

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 21:22
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Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Does the functional or structural damage prevail?

Mult Scler. 2020 Mar 12;:1352458520912175

Authors: Bertoli M, Tecchio F

Abstract
Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly invalidating symptom, lacking efficacious drugs. This topical review aims at assessing the signs in the literature of functional versus structural damage prevalence at the origin of MS fatigue by focusing on papers that assessed the two counterparts in the same patients, paying attention that the fatigue levels do not correlate with clinical severity. We summarize and discuss evidence of increased levels of fatigue occurring together with the alterations of functional connectivity at multiple levels, in the absence of any relationship with lesion load and local atrophy of the involved structures. Specifically, neuronal communication mainly altered in the corticomuscular synchronizations, between hemispheric homologs and in the resting-state networks involved in emotion (cingulate cortex) and effort-reward balance (striatum and inferior parietal lobule). Finally, given the functional prevalence in neuronal network alterations at the origin of fatigue in MS, we highlight the relevance of developing treatments aiming at compensating the neuronal electric communication dysfunctions.

PMID: 32162579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Matched Filter Decomposition of fMRI into Resting and Task Components.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 21:22
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A Matched Filter Decomposition of fMRI into Resting and Task Components.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2019 Oct;11766:673-681

Authors: Joshi AA, Akrami H, Li J, Leahy RM

Abstract
The human brain exhibits dynamic interactions among brain regions when responding to stimuli and executing tasks, which can be recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional MRI signals collected in response to specific tasks consist of a combination of task-related and spontaneous (task-independent) activity. By exploiting the highly structured spatiotemporal patterns of resting state networks, this paper presents a matched-filter approach to decomposing fMRI signals into task and resting-state components. To perform the decomposition, we first use a temporal alignment procedure that is a windowed version of the brainsync transform to synchronize a resting template to the brain's response to tasks. The resulting 'matched filter' removes the components of the fMRI signal that can be described by resting connectivity, leaving the portion of brain activity directly related to tasks. We present a closed-form expression for the windowed synchronization transform that is used by the matched filter. We demonstrate performance of this procedure in application to motor task and language task fMRI data. We show qualitatively and quantitatively that by removing the resting activity, we are able to identify task activated regions in the brain more clearly. Additionally, we show improved prediction accuracy in multivariate pattern analysis when using the matched filtered fMRI data.

PMID: 32161932 [PubMed]

Oxytocin induces long-lasting adaptations within amygdala circuitry in autism: a treatment-mechanism study with randomized placebo-controlled design.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 21:22
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Oxytocin induces long-lasting adaptations within amygdala circuitry in autism: a treatment-mechanism study with randomized placebo-controlled design.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020 Mar 11;:

Authors: Alaerts K, Bernaerts S, Prinsen J, Dillen C, Steyaert J, Wenderoth N

Abstract
Intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin (IN-OT) is increasingly explored as a potential treatment for targeting the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, however, the impact of multiple-dose IN-OT treatment on human neural circuitry is largely unknown, and also the possibility that long-term IN-OT use may induce long-lasting neural adaptations remains unexplored. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, between-subject design (including 38 adult men with ASD), this treatment-mechanism study showed that 4 weeks of daily oxytocin administration (24 IU/day) significantly altered intrinsic (resting-state fMRI) functional connectivity of the amygdala to core regions of the "social brain" (particularly orbitofrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus) up to 4 weeks and 1 year post treatment. The neural adaptations in functional coupling of the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex were associated with reduced feelings of avoidance toward others and-at the trend level-reduced repetitive behaviors. These observations contribute to a deeper mechanistic understanding of the neural substrates that underlie behavioral effects of multiple-dose IN-OT treatment, and provide initial insights into the long-lasting neural consequences of chronic IN-OT use on amygdala circuitry. Future studies are however warranted to further elucidate the long-term impact of IN-OT treatment on human neural circuitry and its behavioral consequences.

PMID: 32161366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Analysis of continuous infusion functional PET (fPET) in the human brain.

Fri, 03/13/2020 - 21:22
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Analysis of continuous infusion functional PET (fPET) in the human brain.

Neuroimage. 2020 Mar 08;:116720

Authors: Li S, Jamadar SD, Ward PGD, Premaratne M, Egan GF, Chen Z

Abstract
Functional positron emission tomography (fPET) is a neuroimaging method involving continuous infusion of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) radiotracer during the course of a PET examination. Compared with the conventional bolus administration of FDG in a static PET scan, which provides an average glucose uptake into the brain over an extended period of up to 30 min, fPET offers a significantly higher temporal resolution to study the dynamics of glucose uptake. Several earlier studies have applied fPET to investigate brain FDG uptake and study its relationship with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, due to the unique characteristics of fPET signals, modelling of the fPET signal is a complex task and poses challenges for accurate interpretation of the results from fPET experiments. This study applied independent component analysis (ICA) to analyse resting state fPET data, and to compare the performance of ICA and the general linear model (GLM) for estimation of brain activation in response to tasks. The fPET signal characteristics were compared using GLM and ICA methods to model fPET data from a visual activation experiment. Our aim was to evaluate GLM and ICA methods for analysing task fPET datasets, and to apply ICA methods to the analysis of resting state fPET datasets. Using both simulation and in-vivo experimental datasets, we show that both ICA and GLM methods can successfully identify task related brain activation. We report fPET metabolic resting state brain networks revealed by application of the fPET ICA method to a cohort of 28 healthy subjects. Functional PET provides a unique method to map dynamic changes of glucose uptake in the resting human brain and in response to extrinsic stimulation.

PMID: 32160950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

ALFF and ReHo Mapping Reveals Different Functional Patterns in Early- and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease.

Thu, 03/12/2020 - 21:19
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ALFF and ReHo Mapping Reveals Different Functional Patterns in Early- and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:141

Authors: Yue Y, Jiang Y, Shen T, Pu J, Lai HY, Zhang B

Abstract
Heterogeneity between late-onset Parkinson's disease (LOPD) and early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is mainly reflected in the following aspects including genetics, disease progression, drug response, clinical manifestation, and neuropathological change. Although many studies have investigated these differences in relation to clinical significance, the functional processing circuits and underlying neural mechanisms have not been entirely understood. In this study, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) maps were used to explore different spontaneous brain activity patterns in EOPD and LOPD patients. Abnormal synchronizations were found in the motor and emotional circuits of the EOPD group, as well as in the motor, emotional, and visual circuits of the LOPD group. EOPD patients showed functional activity change in the visual, emotional and motor circuits, and LOPD patients only showed increased functional activity in the emotional circuits. In summary, the desynchronization process in the LOPD group was relatively strengthened, and the brain areas with changed functional activity in the EOPD group were relatively widespread. The results might point out different impairments in the synchronization and functional activity for EOPD and LOPD patients.

PMID: 32158380 [PubMed]

Aberrant Thalamic-Centered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder.

Thu, 03/12/2020 - 21:19
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Aberrant Thalamic-Centered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2020;16:273-281

Authors: Sun X, Pan X, Ni K, Ji C, Wu J, Yan C, Luo Y

Abstract
Purpose: Recent task-based fMRI studies have shown that Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder (PSPD) patients demonstrated aberrant activity in a wide range of brain regions associated with sensation, cognition and emotion. However, these specific task-based studies could not clearly uncover the alterations in the spontaneous brain networks that were associated with the general pain-related symptoms in PSPD.
Patients and Methods: In the present study, 13 PSPD patients and 23 matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Resting state and 3D structural imaging data were collected during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Ninety regions of interest (ROIs) were selected from the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template. The functional connectivity toolbox "CONN" was used to calculate the functional connectivity (FC) coefficients.
Results: Our results showed that PSPD patients exhibited increased FCs between the left thalamus and the right amygdala, the right hippocampus, and multiple sub-regions of the occipital lobe when compared to HCs. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between the left thalamus-right amygdala FC and the level of anxiety in PSPD patients.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the altered FC between thalamus and amygdala may be the neural mechanisms underlying the pain-related anxiety in PSPD.

PMID: 32158212 [PubMed]

Ruminative Tendency Relates to Ventral Striatum Functionality: Evidence From Task and Resting-State fMRI.

Wed, 03/11/2020 - 21:17
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Ruminative Tendency Relates to Ventral Striatum Functionality: Evidence From Task and Resting-State fMRI.

Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:67

Authors: Erdman A, Abend R, Jalon I, Artzi M, Gazit T, Avirame K, Ais ED, Levokovitz H, Gilboa-Schechtman E, Hendler T, Harel EV

Abstract
Background: Ruminative responding involves repetitive and passive thinking about one's negative affect. This tendency interferes with initiation of goal-directed rewarding strategies, which could alleviate depressive states. Such reward-directed response selection has been shown to be mediated by ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) function. However, to date, no study has examined whether trait rumination relates to VS/NAcc functionality. Here, we tested whether rumination moderates VS/NAcc function both in response to reward and during a ruminative state.
Methods: Trait rumination was considered dimensionally using Rumination Response Scale (RRS) scores. Our sample (N = 80) consisted of individuals from a community sample and from patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, providing a broad range of RRS scores. Participants underwent fMRI to assess two modes of VS/NAcc functionality: 1) in response to reward, and 2) during resting-state, as a proxy for ruminative state. We then tested for associations between RRS scores and VS/NAcc functional profiles, statistically controlling for overall depressive symptom severity.
Results: RRS scores correlated positively with VS/NAcc response to reward. Furthermore, we noted that higher RRS scores were associated with increased ruminative-dependent resting-state functional connectivity of the VS/NAcc with the left orbitofrontal cortex.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that ruminative tendencies manifest in VS/NAcc reward- and rumination-related functions, providing support for a theoretical-clinical perspective of rumination as a habitual impairment in selection of rewarding, adaptive coping strategies.

PMID: 32153443 [PubMed]

Persistent Intrinsic Functional Network Connectivity Alterations in Middle-Aged and Older Women With Remitted Depression.

Wed, 03/11/2020 - 21:17
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Persistent Intrinsic Functional Network Connectivity Alterations in Middle-Aged and Older Women With Remitted Depression.

Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:62

Authors: Vega JN, Taylor WD, Gandelman JA, Boyd BD, Newhouse PA, Shokouhi S, Albert KM

Abstract
Background: In younger adults, residual alterations in functional neural networks persist during remitted depression. However, there are fewer data for midlife and older adults at risk of recurrence. Such residual network alterations may contribute to vulnerability to recurrence. This study examined intrinsic network functional connectivity in midlife and older women with remitted depression.
Methods: A total of 69 women (24 with a history of depression, 45 with no psychiatric history) over 50 years of age completed 3T fMRI with resting-state acquisition. Participants with remitted depression met DSM-IV-TR criteria for an episode in the last 10 years but not the prior year. Whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting-state functional connectivity analyses examined the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN), plus bilateral hippocampal seeds. All analyses were adjusted for age and used cluster-level correction for multiple comparisons with FDR < 0.05 and a height threshold of p < 0.001, uncorrected.
Results: Women with a history of depression exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the SN (right insula seed) and ECN regions, specifically the left superior frontal gyrus. They also exhibited increased functional connectivity between the left hippocampus and the left postcentral gyrus. We did not observe any group differences in functional connectivity for DMN or ECN seeds.
Conclusions: Remitted depression in women is associated with connectivity differences between the SN and ECN and between the hippocampus and the postcentral gyrus, a region involved in interoception. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are related to functional alterations or are predictive of recurrence.

PMID: 32153440 [PubMed]

Structural and Functional Alterations in the Contralesional Medial Temporal Lobe in Glioma Patients.

Wed, 03/11/2020 - 21:17
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Structural and Functional Alterations in the Contralesional Medial Temporal Lobe in Glioma Patients.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:10

Authors: Yuan T, Zuo Z, Ying J, Jin L, Kang J, Gui S, Wang R, Li C

Abstract
Background: The human brain has an extraordinary ability to functionally change or reorganize its structure in response to disease. The aim of this study is to assess the structural and functional plasticity of contralesional medial temporal lobe (MTL) in patients with unilateral MTL glioma.
Methods: Sixty-eight patients with unilateral MTL glioma (left MTL glioma, n = 33; right MTL glioma, n = 35) and 40 healthy controls were recruited and scanned with 3D T1 MRI and rest-fMRI. We explored the structure of the contralesional MTL using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and assessed the memory networks of the contralesional hemisphere using resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). The association between FC and cognitive function was assessed with partial correlation analysis.
Results: Compared with healthy controls, both patient groups exhibited (1) a large cluster of voxels with gray matter (GM) volume decrease in the contralesional MTL using region of interest (ROI)-based VBM analysis (cluster level p < 0.05, FDR corrected); and (2) decreased intrahemispheric FC between the posterior hippocampus (pHPC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p < 0.01, Bonferroni corrected). Intrahemispheric FC between the pHPC and PCC was positively correlated with cognitive function in both patient groups.
Conclusion: Using multi-modality brain imaging tools, we found structural and functional changes in the contralesional MTL in patients with unilateral MTL glioma. These findings suggest that the contralesional cortex may have decompensation of structure and function in patients with unilateral glioma, except for compensatory structural and functional adaptations. Our study provides additional insight into the neuroanatomical and functional network changes in the contralesional cortex in patients with glioma.

PMID: 32153348 [PubMed]

Structural and functional MRI of altered brain development in a novel adolescent rat model of quinpirole-induced compulsive checking behavior.

Wed, 03/11/2020 - 21:17
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Structural and functional MRI of altered brain development in a novel adolescent rat model of quinpirole-induced compulsive checking behavior.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020 Mar 06;:

Authors: Straathof M, Blezer ELA, van Heijningen C, Smeele CE, van der Toorn A, TACTICS Consortium, Buitelaar JK, Glennon JC, Otte WM, Dijkhuizen RM

Abstract
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly considered to be a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, despite insights in neural substrates of OCD in adults, less is known about mechanisms underlying compulsivity during brain development in children and adolescents. Therefore, we developed an adolescent rat model of compulsive checking behavior and investigated developmental changes in structural and functional measures in the frontostriatal circuitry. Five-weeks old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with quinpirole (n = 21) or saline (n = 20) twice a week for five weeks. Each injection was followed by placement in the middle of an open field table, and compulsive behavior was quantified as repeated checking behavior. Anatomical, resting-state functional and diffusion MRI at 4.7T were conducted before the first and after the last quinpirole/saline injection to measure regional volumes, functional connectivity and structural integrity in the brain, respectively. After consecutive quinpirole injections, adolescent rats demonstrated clear checking behavior and repeated travelling between two open-field zones. MRI measurements revealed an increase of regional volumes within the frontostriatal circuits and an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter areas during maturation in both experimental groups. Quinpirole-injected rats showed a larger developmental increase in FA values in the internal capsule and forceps minor compared to control rats. Our study points toward a link between development of compulsive behavior and altered white matter maturation in quinpirole-injected adolescent rats, in line with observations in pediatric patients with compulsive phenotypes. This novel animal model provides opportunities to investigate novel treatments and underlying mechanisms for patients with early-onset OCD specifically.

PMID: 32151497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]