Most recent paper

Subscribe to Most recent paper feed Most recent paper
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="resting"[All Fields] AND "fMRI"[All Fields]
Updated: 20 min ago

Altered resting-state networks may explain the executive impairment in young health immigrants into high-altitude area.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Altered resting-state networks may explain the executive impairment in young health immigrants into high-altitude area.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2020 Mar 03;:

Authors: Chen X, Liu J, Wang J, Xin Z, Zhang Q, Zhang W, Xi Y, Zhu Y, Li C, Li J, Han Y, Liu J, Li B, Luo W, Chen J

Abstract
Executive function is a complex involving multiple advanced brain functions like planning, working memory, mental flexibility and psychomotor. Previous researches indicated that executive function may be impaired after acute or chronic high-altitude exposure, while the underlying neurobiological mechanism has not been totally clarified. In the present study, based on 69 young healthy volunteers immigrating to high-altitude, Stroop test was utilized to identify the potential impairment of executive function after two-year high-altitude exposure while resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) technology was employed to observe the alteration of resting-state networks. Stroop test indicated that the subjects experienced significantly lower accuracies and prolonged responding time after two-year exposure. Resting-state network analysis displayed a significantly decreased degree of co-activation within the left/right frontoparietal network, sensorimotor network, and auditory network after exposure. In the frontoparietal network, decreased co-activation intensity was found in left angular gyrus, while in the right frontoparietal network, decreased co-activation intensity was found in left precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus. Similarly, as for sensorimotor and auditory network, left middle frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus was identified to have decreased co-activation, respectively. Moreover, the responding delays in ST (part II) were negatively correlated with the signal intensity alteration of the right frontoparietal network. All these evidences indicated that the high-altitude exposure induced alteration in above resting state networks may be the functional basis of executive control impairment.

PMID: 32125618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered static and dynamic voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity in subacute stroke patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Altered static and dynamic voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity in subacute stroke patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2020 Mar 03;:

Authors: Chen J, Sun D, Shi Y, Jin W, Wang Y, Xi Q, Ren C

Abstract
Sixty-four subacute stroke patients and 55 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan using an echo-planar imaging sequence and high-resolution sagittal T1-weighted images using a three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo sequence. Static and dynamic voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was computed, respectively. The relationships between the clinical measures, including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), illness duration, Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper and lower extremities (FMA-total) and size of lesion volume, and the static/ dynamic VMHC variability alterations in stroke patients were calculated. The stroke patients showed significantly increased static VMHC in the corpus callosum, middle occipital gyrus and inferior parietal gyrus, and decreased static VMHC in the inferior temporal gyrus and precentral gyrus (PreCG) compared with those of HCs. For dynamic VMHC variability, increased dynamic VMHC variability in the inferior temporal gyrus and PreCG was detected in stroke patients relative to that in HCs. Correlation analysis exhibited that significant negative correlations were shown between the FMA scores and dynamic VMHC variability in PreCG. The present study suggests that combined static and dynamic VMHC could be helpful to evaluate the motor function of stroke patients and understand the intrinsic differences of inter-hemispheric coordination after stroke.

PMID: 32125611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity of thalamus in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: results from a resting-state fMRI study.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Functional connectivity of thalamus in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: results from a resting-state fMRI study.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2020 Mar 03;:

Authors: Zhang A, Zhang L, Wang M, Zhang Y, Jiang F, Jin X, Du X, Ma J

Abstract
Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is characterized by a low cure rate and a high reoccurrence rate, since its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the recent studies that thalamus plays an important role in waking up a sleeping person, here we further investigate the functional connectivity (FC) information between thalamus and other brain regions, in order to make better understanding of the PNE's pathogenesis. In this study, we enrolled 30 children diagnosed with PNE and 30 typically developing children that are age and sex matched, the thalamus-based FC estimates were extracted at the resting-state. Experiments showed that for children with PNE, there were four brain regions found with a reduced connection efficiency with thalamus, that were cerebellum posterior lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe and precentral gyrus. It can be concluded that these relevant regions might induce an arousal disorder, and therefore further lead to PNE. This finding also provides a new insight in the pathophysiology of PNE.

PMID: 32125610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Global and regional connectivity analysis of resting-state function MRI brain images using graph theory in Parkinson's disease.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Global and regional connectivity analysis of resting-state function MRI brain images using graph theory in Parkinson's disease.

Int J Neurosci. 2020 Mar 03;:1-11

Authors: Prajapati R, Emerson IA

Abstract
Objectives: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder which resists around 10 million people worldwide. It develops when nerve cells in a region of the brain that regulates movement become damaged; the symptoms usually begin gradually and become critical over time. In this study, we proposed to investigate the topological properties of functional brain networks within healthy controls (HCs) and PD patients. Also, we evaluated the gender difference among PD patients through graph theoretical approach.Materials and Methods: The rs-fMRI (resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging) data of fifty-one PD patients and healthy controls was applied to generate the brain functional connectome. The functional whole-brain connectome was constructed by thresholding partial correlation matrices of 160 regions from Dosenbach brain atlas. From the graph theory approach, global and nodal metrics were analysed, and we observed considerable changes in PD patients in comparison with healthy controls.Results: Findings suggest that there is a significant difference in the topological characteristics of PD patients, and this was found to be evident in the default mode network (DMN) and occipital regions.Conclusion: This study provides essential insights from network changes to the clinically relevant information for the PD progression.

PMID: 32124666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity of the anterior insula associated with intolerance of uncertainty in youth.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Functional connectivity of the anterior insula associated with intolerance of uncertainty in youth.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2020 Mar 02;:

Authors: DeSerisy M, Musial A, Comer JS, Roy AK

Abstract
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic marked by distress in the face of insufficient information. Elevated IU has been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, particularly during adolescence, which is characterized by dramatic neural maturation and the onset of anxiety disorders. Previous task-based work implicates the bilateral anterior insula in IU. However, the association between anterior insula intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and IU has not been examined in adolescents. Fifty-eight healthy youth (mean age = 12.56; 55% boys) completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children (IUSC-12) and a 6-minute resting state fMRI scan. Group-level analyses were conducted using a random-effects, ordinary least-squares model, including IUSC-12 scores (Total, Inhibitory subscale, Prospective subscale), and three nuisance covariates (age, sex, and mean framewise displacement). IUSC-12 Inhibitory subscale scores were predictive of iFC between the left and right anterior insula and right prefrontal regions. IUSC-12 Prospective subscale scores significantly predicted iFC between the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. IUSC-12 total scores did not predict significant iFC of the bilateral anterior insula. Follow-up analyses, including anxiety (MASC Total Score) in the models, failed to find significant results. This could suggest that the associations found between IUSC-12 scores and anterior insula iFC are not unique to IU and, rather, reflect a broader anxiety-related connectivity pattern. Further studies with larger samples are needed to tease apart unique associations. These findings bear significance in contributing to the literature evaluating the neural correlates of risk factors for anxiety in youth.

PMID: 32124254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multimodal brain data and core dimensions of creativity.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Multimodal brain data and core dimensions of creativity.

Data Brief. 2020 Apr;29:105176

Authors: Poppenk J

Abstract
The current dataset incorporates multimodal brain imaging and creativity test data from a sample of 66 healthy young adults, all of whom were healthy right-handed English speakers, aged 22 to 35, with normal or corrected-to-normal hearing and vision. The participants completed measures of divergent thinking (Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults; ATTA), everyday creativity (Creative Behaviour Inventory; CBI), and creative achievement (Creative Achievement Questionnaire; CAQ), consistent with the known multidimensional nature of creativity. They also completed high-resolution anatomical scans (T1-weighted and T2-weighted), diffusion tensor imaging scans, and resting state fMRI scans. The data were originally used in the article Neuroimaging predictors of creativity in healthy adults by Sunavsky and Poppenk [1] to test a set of confirmatory predictions regarding the volumetric, structural connectivity, and functional connectivity correlates of creativity. The data are uniquely high-dimensional in measuring both multiple dimensions of creativity as well as multimodal brain data, and may be valuable to researchers for testing models of individual differences in creativity, or who are seeking to integrate multiple datasets for large-scale, multi-site analysis of creativity.

PMID: 32123701 [PubMed]

fMRI Revealed Reduced Amygdala Activation after Nx4 in Mildly to Moderately Stressed Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

fMRI Revealed Reduced Amygdala Activation after Nx4 in Mildly to Moderately Stressed Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 02;10(1):3802

Authors: Herrmann L, Vicheva P, Kasties V, Danyeli LV, Szycik GR, Denzel D, Fan Y, Meer JV, Vester JC, Eskoetter H, Schultz M, Walter M

Abstract
Social stress contributes to major societal health burdens, such as anxiety disorders and nervousness. Nx4 has been found to modulate stress responses. We investigated whether dampening of such responses is associated with neuronal correlates in brain regions involved in stress and anxiety. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial, 39 healthy males took a single dose (three tablets) of either placebo or Nx4, 40 to 60 minutes before an fMRI scan session. We here report on drug effects on amygdala responses during a face-matching task, which was performed during a complex test battery further including resting-state brain connectivity and a social stress experiment. The first of the Primary Outcomes, defined in a hierarchical order, concerned reduced amygdala effects after intake of verum compared to placebo. We found a statistically significant reduction in differential activations in the left amygdala for the contrast negative faces versus forms during verum versus placebo condition. Our results indicate that effects of Nx4 can be monitored in the brain. Previously noted effects on stress responses may thus be modulated by affective brain regions including the amygdala.

PMID: 32123197 [PubMed - in process]

Connectivity at the origins of domain specificity in the cortical face and place networks.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Connectivity at the origins of domain specificity in the cortical face and place networks.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Mar 02;:

Authors: Kamps FS, Hendrix CL, Brennan PA, Dilks DD

Abstract
It is well established that the adult brain contains a mosaic of domain-specific networks. But how do these domain-specific networks develop? Here we tested the hypothesis that the brain comes prewired with connections that precede the development of domain-specific function. Using resting-state fMRI in the youngest sample of newborn humans tested to date, we indeed found that cortical networks that will later develop strong face selectivity (including the "proto" occipital face area and fusiform face area) and scene selectivity (including the "proto" parahippocampal place area and retrosplenial complex) by adulthood, already show domain-specific patterns of functional connectivity as early as 27 d of age (beginning as early as 6 d of age). Furthermore, we asked how these networks are functionally connected to early visual cortex and found that the proto face network shows biased functional connectivity with foveal V1, while the proto scene network shows biased functional connectivity with peripheral V1. Given that faces are almost always experienced at the fovea, while scenes always extend across the entire periphery, these differential inputs may serve to facilitate domain-specific processing in each network after that function develops, or even guide the development of domain-specific function in each network in the first place. Taken together, these findings reveal domain-specific and eccentricity-biased connectivity in the earliest days of life, placing new constraints on our understanding of the origins of domain-specific cortical networks.

PMID: 32123077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cortical topological network changes following optic neuritis.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Cortical topological network changes following optic neuritis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2020 May;7(3):

Authors: Backner Y, Ben-Shalom I, Kuchling J, Siebert N, Scheel M, Ruprecht K, Brandt A, Paul F, Levin N

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To differentiate between visual cortical network topology changes following optic neuritis (ON) stemming from different inflammatory disease types, we used mathematical graph theory-based tools to analyze functional imaging data.
METHODS: Sixty-two patients were recruited into this cross-sectional study, 23 of whom had neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with ON, 18 with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)-ON, and 21 with other CIS episodes. Twenty-six healthy controls (HCs) were also recruited. All participants underwent resting-state functional MRI. Visual networks were defined using 50 visual regions of interest. Analysis included graph theory metrics, including degree, density, modularity, and local and global efficiency.
RESULTS: Visual network density shows decreased connectivity in all patient groups compared with controls. A higher degree of connections is seen in both ON groups (CIS and NMOSD) compared with the the non-ON group. This pattern is most pronounced in dorsal-lateral regions. Information transfer efficiency and modularity were reduced in both CIS groups, but not in the NMOSD group, compared with the HC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Visual network density appears affected by the neurologic deficit sustained (ON), and connectivity changes are more evident in dorsal-lateral regions. Efficiency and modularity appear to be associated with the specific disease type (CIS vs NMOSD). Thus, topological cortical changes in the visual system are associated with the type of neurologic deficit within the limits set on them by the underlying pathophysiology. We suggest that cortical patterns of activity should be considered in the outcome of the patients despite the localized nature of ON.

PMID: 32123044 [PubMed - in process]

Attentional Connectivity-based Prediction of Autism Using Heterogeneous rs-fMRI Data from CC200 Atlas.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 21:01
Related Articles

Attentional Connectivity-based Prediction of Autism Using Heterogeneous rs-fMRI Data from CC200 Atlas.

Exp Neurobiol. 2020 Feb 29;29(1):27-37

Authors: Liu Y, Xu L, Li J, Yu J, Yu X

Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental syndrome characterized by obvious drawbacks in sociality and communication. It has crucial significance to exactly discern the individuals with ASD and typical controls (TC). Previous imaging studies on ASD/TC identification have made remarkable progress in the exploration of objective as well as crucial biomarkers associated with ASD. However, glaring deficiency is manifested by the investigation on solely homogeneous and small datasets. Thus, we attempted to unveil some replicable and robust neural patterns of autism using a heterogeneous multi-site brain imaging dataset from ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange). Experiments were carried out with an attention mechanism based on Extra-Trees algorithm, taking the study object of brain connectivity measured with the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of CC200 atlas. With cross-validation strategy, our proposed method resulted in a mean classification accuracy of 72.2% (sensitivity=68.6%, specificity=75.4%). It raised the precision of ASD prediction by about 2% and specificity by 3.2% in comparison with the most competitive reported effort. Connectivity analysis on the optimal model highlighted informative regions strongly involved in the social cognition as well as interaction, and manifested lower correlation between the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN) in autistic individuals than controls. This observation is concordant with previous studies, which enables our proposed method to effectively identify the individuals with risk of ASD.

PMID: 32122106 [PubMed]

Amygdala Functional Connectivity Is Associated With Emotion Regulation and Amygdala Reactivity in 4- to 6-Year-Olds.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Amygdala Functional Connectivity Is Associated With Emotion Regulation and Amygdala Reactivity in 4- to 6-Year-Olds.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 28;:

Authors: Gaffrey MS, Barch DM, Luby JL, Petersen SE

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Emotion dysregulation has been suggested to be a potent risk factor for multiple psychiatric conditions. Altered amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity has been consistently linked to emotion dysregulation. Recent data indicate that amygdala-PFC functional connectivity undergoes a prolonged period of development, with amygdala reactivity during early childhood potentially shaping this unfolding process. Little is known about the relationships between amygdala-PFC functional connectivity, amygdala reactivity, and emotion regulation during early childhood. This information is likely critical for understanding early emotion dysregulation as a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. The current study examined the relationships between amygdala functional connectivity, amygdala reactivity, and emotion regulation in preschoolers.
METHOD: Sixty-six medication naïve 4- to 6-year-olds participated in a study where resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) and parent-reported child emotion regulation ability data were collected. fMRI data collected during a face viewing task was also available for 24 children.
RESULTS: Right amygdala-medial PFC (mPFC) functional connectivity was positively associated with child emotion regulation ability and negatively associated with child negative affect and right amygdala reactivity to facial expressions of emotion. Right amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity also statistically mediated the relationship between heightened right amygdala reactivity and elevated child negative affect.
CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity during early childhood, and its relationships with amygdala reactivity and emotion regulation during this highly sensitive developmental period, may play an important role in early emotional development. These results inform the neurodevelopmental biology of emotion regulation and its potential relationship with risk for psychopathology.

PMID: 32119912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in drug-naïve first-episode patients with anorexia nervosa: A resting-state fMRI study.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation in drug-naïve first-episode patients with anorexia nervosa: A resting-state fMRI study.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Feb;99(9):e19300

Authors: Lai J, Xu T, Zhang H, Xi C, Zhou H, Du Y, Jiang J, Wu L, Zhang P, Xu Y, Hu S, Xu D

Abstract
To characterize the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) in drug-naïve first-episode female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).Whole brain rs-fMRI data were collected from 7 drug-naïve first-episode female patients with DSM-5 AN and 14 age-matched healthy female controls. fALFF values were calculated and compared between the two groups using a two-sample t test. Correlation analysis between the fALFF values in the entire brain and body mass index (BMI) was performed.Compared with the healthy controls, increased fALFF values were observed in the AN patients in their right hippocampus and left superior frontal gyrus, while decreased fALFF values were observed in their left rectus and left middle occipital gyrus. Moreover, low BMI was significantly associated with decreased fALFF in the left inferior frontal gyrus but increased fALFF in the left calcarine. In particular, the z-standardized fALFF (zfALFF) value of the left rectus was positive associated with BMI.Our findings suggest that spontaneous brain activity in the frontal region, hippocampus and rectus, characterized by fALFF values, was altered in drug-naïve, first-episode female patients with AN.

PMID: 32118747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal Anatomical Rich-Club Organization and Structural-Functional Coupling in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Abnormal Anatomical Rich-Club Organization and Structural-Functional Coupling in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurol. 2020;11:53

Authors: Cao R, Wang X, Gao Y, Li T, Zhang H, Hussain W, Xie Y, Wang J, Wang B, Xiang J

Abstract
Emerging research indicates interruptions in the wiring organization of the brain network in Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to the important role of rich-club organization in distinguishing abnormalities of AD patients and the close relationship between structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC), our study examined whether changes in SC-FC coupling and the relationship with abnormal rich-club organizations during the development of diseases may contribute to the pathophysiology of AD. Structural diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were performed in 38 normal controls (NCs), 40 MCI patients and 19 AD patients. Measures of the rich-club structure and its role in global structural-functional coupling were administered. Our study found decreased levels of feeder and local connectivity in MCI and AD patients, which were the main contributing factors to the lower efficiency of the brain structural network. Another important finding was that we have more accurately characterized the changing pattern of functional brain dynamics. The enhanced coupling between SC and FC in MCI and AD patients might be due to disruptions in optimal structural organization. More interestingly, we also found increases in the SC-FC coupling for feeder and local connections in MCI and AD patients. SC-FC coupling also showed significant differences between MCI and AD patients, mainly between the abnormal feeder connections. The connection density and coupling strength were significantly correlated with clinical metrics in patients. The present findings enhanced our understanding of the neurophysiologic mechanisms associated with MCI and AD.

PMID: 32117016 [PubMed]

Abnormal Functional and Structural Connectivity of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuit in First-Episode Adolescent Depression: A Combined fMRI and DTI Study.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Abnormal Functional and Structural Connectivity of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuit in First-Episode Adolescent Depression: A Combined fMRI and DTI Study.

Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:983

Authors: Wu F, Tu Z, Sun J, Geng H, Zhou Y, Jiang X, Li H, Kong L

Abstract
Background: Abnormalities of functional and structural connectivity in the amygdala-prefrontal circuit which involved with emotion processing have been implicated in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adolescent MDD may have severer dysfunction of emotion processing than adult MDD. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the potential functional and structural connectivity abnormalities within amygdala-prefrontal circuit in first-episode medication-naïve adolescents with MDD.
Methods: Rs-fMRI and DTI data were acquired from 36 first-episode medication-naïve MDD adolescents and 37 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity between amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) which connecting amygdala and PFC were compared between the MDD and HC groups. The correlation between the FA value of UF and the strength of the functional connectivity in the PFC showing significant differences between the two groups was identified.
Results: Compared with the HC group, decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and left ventral PFC was detected in the adolescent MDD group. FA values were significant lower in the left UF within the adolescent MDD group compared to the HC group. There was no significant correlation between the UF and FA, and the strength of functional connectivity within the adolescent MDD group.
Conclusions: First-episode medication-naïve adolescent MDD showed decreased functional and structural connectivity in the amygdala-prefrontal circuit. These findings suggest that both functional and structural abnormalities of the amygdala-prefrontal circuit may present in the early onset of adolescent MDD and play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of adolescent MDD.

PMID: 32116814 [PubMed]

Triple Network Model Dynamically Revisited: Lower Salience Network State Switching in Pre-psychosis.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Triple Network Model Dynamically Revisited: Lower Salience Network State Switching in Pre-psychosis.

Front Physiol. 2020;11:66

Authors: Bolton TAW, Wotruba D, Buechler R, Theodoridou A, Michels L, Kollias S, Rössler W, Heekeren K, Van De Ville D

Abstract
Emerging evidence has attributed altered network coordination between the default mode, central executive, and salience networks (DMN/CEN/SAL) to disturbances seen in schizophrenia, but little is known for at-risk psychosis stages. Moreover, pinpointing impairments in specific network-to-network interactions, although essential to resolve possibly distinct harbingers of conversion to clinically diagnosed schizophrenia, remains particularly challenging. We addressed this by a dynamic approach to functional connectivity, where right anterior insula brain interactions were examined through co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis. We utilized resting-state fMRI in 19 subjects suffering from subthreshold delusions and hallucinations (UHR), 28 at-risk for psychosis with basic symptoms describing only self-experienced subclinical disturbances (BS), and 29 healthy controls (CTR) matched for age, gender, handedness, and intelligence. We extracted the most recurring CAPs, compared their relative occurrence and average dwell time to probe their temporal expression, and quantified occurrence balance to assess the putative loss of competing relationships. Our findings substantiate the pivotal role of the right anterior insula in governing CEN-to-DMN transitions, which appear dysfunctional prior to the onset of psychosis, especially when first attenuated psychotic symptoms occur. In UHR subjects, it is longer active in concert with the DMN and there is a loss of competition between a SAL/DMN state, and a state with insula/CEN activation paralleled by DMN deactivation. These features suggest that abnormal network switching disrupts one's capacity to distinguish between the internal world and external environment, which is accompanied by inflexibility and an excessive awareness to internal processes reflected by prolonged expression of the right anterior insula-default mode co-activation pattern.

PMID: 32116776 [PubMed]

Clustering of Brain Function Network Based on Attribute and Structural Information and Its Application in Brain Diseases.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Clustering of Brain Function Network Based on Attribute and Structural Information and Its Application in Brain Diseases.

Front Neuroinform. 2019;13:79

Authors: Cui X, Xiao J, Guo H, Wang B, Li D, Niu Y, Xiang J, Chen J

Abstract
At present, the diagnosis of brain disease is mainly based on the self-reported symptoms and clinical signs of the patient, which can easily lead to psychiatrists' bias. The purpose of this study is to develop a brain network clustering model to accurately identify brain diseases based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the absence of clinical information. We use cosine similarity and sub-network kernels to measure attribute similarity and structure similarity, respectively. By integrating the structure similarity and attribute similarity into one matrix, spectral clustering is used to achieve brain network clustering. Finally, we evaluate this method on three diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Bipolar disorder patients, and Schizophrenia. The performance of methods is evaluated by measuring clustering consistency. Clustering consistency is similar to clustering accuracy, which is used to evaluate the consistency between the clustering labels and clinical diagnostic labels of the subjects. The experimental results show that our proposed method can significantly improve clustering performance, with a consistency of 60.6% for Alzheimer's disease, with a consistency of 100% for Schizophrenia, with a consistency of 100% for Bipolar disorder patients.

PMID: 32116624 [PubMed]

The Similarity Between Chinese Five-Pattern and Eysenck's Personality Traits: Evidence From Theory and Resting-State fMRI.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

The Similarity Between Chinese Five-Pattern and Eysenck's Personality Traits: Evidence From Theory and Resting-State fMRI.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2020;14:38

Authors: Zhao W, Song L, Du J, Li X, Wang H, Cheng L, Li J, Zhang L, Li X, Yang Q, Xu Y

Abstract
Chinese five-pattern and Eysenck's personality traits are two types of personality theories based on different cultural backgrounds. The former is an indigenous theory, and the latter is a cross-cultural theory. In order to verify the relationship between two different personality traits from theory and neuropsychology, the current study recruited 170 healthy adults to calculate their five-Pattern Personality Inventory (FPPI) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ) scales and to scan their brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Then, we performed stepwise-regression analysis and mediation-effect analysis to explore the association between brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) and two types of personality traits. The results showed that the ReHo of the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) positively correlated with TaiYang traits for FPPI and that there was a significant linear relationship with extraversion and neuroticism for EPQ. Besides, the ReHo of the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) positively correlated with TaiYin for FPPI, and it also showed a significant linear relationship with neuroticism for EPQ. Furthermore, we found that extroversion and neuroticism partially mediated the relationship between five-pattern personality traits and the regional brain function, based on the mediation-effect analysis. Our findings suggest that Chinese five-pattern personality traits have a close relationship with Eysenck's personality traits and that both may be engaged in similar neurobiological mechanisms in common brain regions to some extent. Hence, these findings first reveal a relationship between Chinese traditional personality traits and Western Eysenck's personality traits in terms of both theoretical and neurobiological contexts.

PMID: 32116615 [PubMed]

Effects of Transcranial Stimulation With Direct and Alternating Current on Resting-State Functional Connectivity: An Exploratory Study Simultaneously Combining Stimulation and Multiband Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Effects of Transcranial Stimulation With Direct and Alternating Current on Resting-State Functional Connectivity: An Exploratory Study Simultaneously Combining Stimulation and Multiband Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2019;13:474

Authors: Mondino M, Ghumman S, Gane C, Renauld E, Whittingstall K, Fecteau S

Abstract
Background: Transcranial stimulation with direct (tDCS) and alternating current (tACS) has increasingly gained interest in various fields, from cognitive neuroscience to clinical investigations. Transcranial current stimulation used alone may modulate brain activity that consequently influences behaviors, without providing information on potentially induced brain activity changes. The combination of transcranial current stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help to address this. This exploratory study investigated instantaneous and subsequent effects of tDCS and tACS on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in healthy adults. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover study with 15 healthy subjects receiving three stimulation conditions (tDCS, tACS, and sham) on separate days. Stimulation was applied over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 30 min (1 mA). rsFC of the targeted prefrontal areas was assessed before, during, and after stimulation using multiband fMRI and using left and right DLPFC as seeds. Results: Both tDCS and tACS increased rsFC during and after the stimulation period, as compared to sham. tDCS-induced changes were observed between the left DLPFC and bilateral parietal regions at the junction of the superior parietal and the inferior parietal lobules. tACS-induced changes were observed between the left DLPFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that a single session with a low dose, 1 mA, of tDCS or tACS can cause changes in fronto-parietal connectivity that occur rapidly, that is, within the first 15 min. Although exploratory, this work contributes to the discussion of the potential of transcranial current stimulation to modulate resting-state networks and the interest of combining transcranial current stimulation with neuroimaging to identify these changes.

PMID: 32116597 [PubMed]

Predicting Empathy From Resting State Brain Connectivity: A Multivariate Approach.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Predicting Empathy From Resting State Brain Connectivity: A Multivariate Approach.

Front Integr Neurosci. 2020;14:3

Authors: Christov-Moore L, Reggente N, Douglas PK, Feusner JD, Iacoboni M

Abstract
Recent task fMRI studies suggest that individual differences in trait empathy and empathic concern are mediated by patterns of connectivity between self-other resonance and top-down control networks that are stable across task demands. An untested implication of this hypothesis is that these stable patterns of connectivity should be visible even in the absence of empathy tasks. Using machine learning, we demonstrate that patterns of resting state fMRI connectivity (i.e. the degree of synchronous BOLD activity across multiple cortical areas in the absence of explicit task demands) of resonance and control networks predict trait empathic concern (n = 58). Empathic concern was also predicted by connectivity patterns within the somatomotor network. These findings further support the role of resonance-control network interactions and of somatomotor function in our vicariously driven concern for others. Furthermore, a practical implication of these results is that it is possible to assess empathic predispositions in individuals without needing to perform conventional empathy assessments.

PMID: 32116582 [PubMed]

Explaining Individual Differences in Motor Behavior by Intrinsic Functional Connectivity and Corticospinal Excitability.

Wed, 03/04/2020 - 03:00
Related Articles

Explaining Individual Differences in Motor Behavior by Intrinsic Functional Connectivity and Corticospinal Excitability.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:76

Authors: Herszage J, Dayan E, Sharon H, Censor N

Abstract
Motor performance varies substantially between individuals. This variance is rooted in individuals' innate motor abilities, and should thus have a neural signature underlying these differences in behavior. Could these individual differences be detectable with neural measurements acquired at rest? Here, we tested the hypothesis that motor performance can be predicted by resting motor-system functional connectivity and motor-evoked-potentials (MEPs) induced by non-invasive brain stimulation. Twenty healthy right handed subjects performed structural and resting-state fMRI scans. On a separate day, MEPs were measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contrateral primary motor cortex (M1). At the end of the session, participants performed a finger-tapping task using their left non-dominant hand. Resting-state functional connectivity between the contralateral M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA) predicted motor task performance, indicating that individuals with stronger resting M1-SMA functional connectivity exhibit better motor performance. This prediction was neither improved nor reduced by the addition of corticospinal excitability to the model. These results confirm that motor behavior can be predicted from neural measurements acquired prior to task performance, primarily relying on resting functional connectivity rather than corticospinal excitability. The ability to predict motor performance from resting neural markers, provides an opportunity to identify the extent of successful rehabilitation following neurological damage.

PMID: 32116520 [PubMed]