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Static magnetic field stimulation of the supplementary motor area modulates resting-state activity and motor behavior.

Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:17
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Static magnetic field stimulation of the supplementary motor area modulates resting-state activity and motor behavior.

Commun Biol. 2019;2:397

Authors: Pineda-Pardo JA, Obeso I, Guida P, Dileone M, Strange BA, Obeso JA, Oliviero A, Foffani G

Abstract
Focal application of a strong static magnetic field over the human scalp induces measurable local changes in brain function. Whether it also induces distant effects across the brain and how these local and distant effects collectively affect motor behavior remains unclear. Here we applied transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) over the supplementary motor area (SMA) in healthy subjects. At a behavioral level, tSMS increased the time to initiate movement while decreasing errors in choice reaction-time tasks. At a functional level, tSMS increased SMA resting-state fMRI activity and bilateral functional connectivity between the SMA and both the paracentral lobule and the lateral frontotemporal cortex, including the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that tSMS over the SMA can induce behavioral aftereffects associated with modulation of both local and distant functionally-connected cortical circuits involved in the control of speed-accuracy tradeoffs, thus offering a promising protocol for cognitive and clinical research.

PMID: 31701026 [PubMed]

Distinct individual differences in default mode network connectivity relate to off-task thought and text memory during reading.

Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:17
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Distinct individual differences in default mode network connectivity relate to off-task thought and text memory during reading.

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 07;9(1):16220

Authors: Zhang M, Savill N, Margulies DS, Smallwood J, Jefferies E

Abstract
Often, as we read, we find ourselves thinking about something other than the text; this tendency to mind-wander is linked to poor comprehension and reduced subsequent memory for texts. Contemporary accounts argue that periods of off-task thought are related to the tendency for attention to be decoupled from external input. We used fMRI to understand the neural processes that underpin this phenomenon. First, we found that individuals with poorer text-based memory tend to show reduced recruitment of left middle temporal gyrus in response to orthographic input, within a region located at the intersection of default mode, dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks. Voxels within these networks were taken as seeds in a subsequent resting-state study. The default mode network region (i) had greater connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex, falling within the same network, for individuals with better text-based memory, and (ii) was more decoupled from medial visual regions in participants who mind-wandered more frequently. These findings suggest that stronger intrinsic connectivity within the default mode network is linked to better text processing, while reductions in default mode network coupling to the visual system may underpin individual variation in the tendency for our attention to become disengaged from what we are reading.

PMID: 31700143 [PubMed - in process]

Morphological MRI phenotypes of multiple sclerosis differ in resting-state brain function.

Sun, 11/10/2019 - 03:17
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Morphological MRI phenotypes of multiple sclerosis differ in resting-state brain function.

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 07;9(1):16221

Authors: Pinter D, Beckmann CF, Fazekas F, Khalil M, Pichler A, Gattringer T, Ropele S, Fuchs S, Enzinger C

Abstract
We aimed to assess differences in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between distinct morphological MRI-phenotypes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Out of 180 MS patients, we identified those with high T2-hyperintense lesion load (T2-LL) and high normalized brain volume (NBV; a predominately white matter damage group, WMD; N = 37) and patients with low T2-LL and low NBV (N = 37; a predominately grey matter damage group; GMD). Independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI was used to test for differences in the sensorimotor network (SMN) between MS MRI-phenotypes and compared to 37 age-matched healthy controls (HC). The two MS groups did not differ regarding EDSS scores, disease duration and distribution of clinical phenotypes. WMD compared to GMD patients showed increased FC in all sub-units of the SMN (sex- and age-corrected). WMD patients had increased FC compared to HC and GMD patients in the central SMN (leg area). Only in the WMD group, higher EDSS scores and T2-LL correlated with decreased connectivity in SMN sub-units. MS patients with distinct morphological MRI-phenotypes also differ in brain function. The amount of focal white matter pathology but not global brain atrophy affects connectivity in the central SMN (leg area) of the SMN, consistent with the notion of a disconnection syndrome.

PMID: 31700126 [PubMed - in process]

Static and Dynamic Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex during Resting-State Predicts Self-serving Bias in Depression.

Sat, 11/09/2019 - 00:16
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Static and Dynamic Functional Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex during Resting-State Predicts Self-serving Bias in Depression.

Behav Brain Res. 2019 Nov 04;:112335

Authors: Cui G, Wang Y, Wang X, Zheng L, Li L, Li P, Zhang L, Guo Y, Chen Y, Sun Z, Meng X

Abstract
Major depression disorder (MDD) is characterized by the lack of self-serving bias, which may inherently underlie the onset and maintenance of depression. Emerging neuroimaging evidences have indicated that the altered self-processing in MDD may be germane to the dysfunctional static resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although static RSFC studies provide tremendous amounts of evidences on functional changes in depression, explorations of dynamic RSFC among the PFC and other brain regions may elucidate the temporal changes of neural activities associated with depression. To further explore the behavioral and neural correlates of self-serving bias, 21 depressed and 23 non-depressed individuals underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and completed a self-serving bias task. Static and dynamic RSFC analyses were conducted for specific subregions of the PFC, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the ventral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex. Depressed patients showed an attenuated self-serving bias as compared with controls, and aberrant static and dynamic RSFC among these subregions of the PFC. In particular, the self-serving bias was associated with static dmPFC-to-OFC RSFC and dynamic vlPFC-to-OFC RSFC for MDD group. The aberrant RSFC of the PFC may serve as a predictor for self-serving bias in depression.

PMID: 31697986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity modulates the BOLD activation induced by nucleus accumbens stimulation in the swine brain.

Sat, 11/09/2019 - 00:16
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Resting-state functional connectivity modulates the BOLD activation induced by nucleus accumbens stimulation in the swine brain.

Brain Behav. 2019 Nov 07;:e01431

Authors: Cho S, Hachmann JT, Balzekas I, In MH, Andres-Beck LG, Lee KH, Min HK, Jo HJ

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: While the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) the treatment of motor-related symptoms is well established, the mechanism of action of the resulting cognitive and behavioral effects has been elusive.
METHODS: By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and DBS, we investigated the pattern of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes induced by stimulating the nucleus accumbens in a large animal model.
RESULTS: We found that diffused BOLD activation across multiple functional networks, including the prefrontal, limbic, and thalamic regions during the stimulation, resulted in a significant change in inter-regional functional connectivity. More importantly, the magnitude of the modulation was closely related to the strength of the inter-regional resting-state functional connectivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Nucleus accumbens stimulation affects the functional activity in networks that underlie cognition and behavior. Our study provides an insight into the nature of the functional connectivity, which mediates activation effect via brain networks.

PMID: 31697455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Acupuncture Effect and Mechanism for Treating Pain in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Acupuncture Effect and Mechanism for Treating Pain in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol. 2019;10:1114

Authors: Yu SW, Lin SH, Tsai CC, Chaudhuri KR, Huang YC, Chen YS, Yeh BY, Wu YR, Wang JJ

Abstract
Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been receiving increasing attention. Approximately half of patients with PD have experience PD-related pain. We investigated the effect and mechanism of acupuncture in patients with PD who have pain. PD patients with pain were divided into acupuncture group and control group. Nine patients completed acupuncture treatment; seven patients who received only an analgesic agent underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) twice. fMRI was performed to evaluate the functional connectivity of the brain regions. After treatment, a decrease in total scores on the King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale (KPPS) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was observed in the acupuncture group (-46.2 and -21.6%, respectively). In the acupuncture group, increased connectivity was observed in four connections, one in the left hemisphere between the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and precentral gyrus, and three in the right hemisphere between the postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and precentral gyrus, and MTG and insular cortex. A significant correlation was noted between the changes in functional connectivity and KPPS. The involved connection was between the left middle frontal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus (R = -0.698, P = 0.037). Acupuncture could relieve pain in PD patients by modulating brain regions related to both sensory-discriminative and emotional aspects. The present study might increase the confidence of users that acupuncture is an effective and safe analgesic tool that can relieve PD-related pain.

PMID: 31695670 [PubMed]

Disrupted interhemispheric functional coordination in patients with chronic low back-related leg pain: a multiscale frequency-related homotopic connectivity study.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Disrupted interhemispheric functional coordination in patients with chronic low back-related leg pain: a multiscale frequency-related homotopic connectivity study.

J Pain Res. 2019;12:2615-2626

Authors: Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Pei Y, Zhao Y, Zhou F, Huang M, Wu L, Zhang D, Gong H

Abstract
Objective: Chronic low back pain has been observed to decrease movement coordination. However, it is unclear whether the existing alteration of inter-hemispheric synchrony of intrinsic activity in patients with chronic low back-related leg pain (cLBLP). The present study aims to investigate the alteration of homotopic connectivity and its clinical association with the cLBLP patients.
Participants and methods: A cohort of cLBLP patients (n=25) and well-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n=27) were recruited and underwent MRI scanning and a battery of clinical tests. The voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to analyze the interhemispheric coordination in the typical (0.01-0.1 Hz) as well as five specific (slow-6 to slow-2) frequency bands and associated with clinical index in cLBLP patients.
Results: We observed that cLBLP patients with lower homotopic connectivity than HCs in the inferior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the basal ganglia, the middle frontal gyrus, and the medial prefrontal cortex in the typical and five specific frequency bands, respectively. In the typical and five specific frequency bands, significant positive correlations were observed between the VMHC values of medial prefrontal cortex and the visual analogue scale scores, while the VMHC values of basal ganglia negative correlated with the values of two-point tactile discrimination (2PD) test for the right hand in cLBLP patients, etc. Further receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that VMHC in the above regions with decreased could be used to differentiate the cerebral functional plasticity of cLBLP from healthy individuals with high sensitivity and specificity.
Conclusion: Our results imply that multiscale frequency-related interhemispheric disconnectivity may underlie the central pathogenesis of functional coordination in patients with cLBLP.

PMID: 31695477 [PubMed]

From state-to-trait meditation: Reconfiguration of central executive and default mode networks.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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From state-to-trait meditation: Reconfiguration of central executive and default mode networks.

eNeuro. 2019 Nov 06;:

Authors: Bauer CCC, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Díaz JL, Pasaye EH, Barrios FA

Abstract
While brain default mode network (DMN) activation in human subjects has been associated with mind wandering, meditation practice has been found to suppress it and to increase psychological well-being. Additionally to DMN activity reduction, experienced meditators during meditation practice show and increased connectivity between the DMN and the central executive network (CEN). However, the gradual change between DMN and CEN configuration from pre-meditation, during meditation, and post-meditation are unknown. Here we investigated the change in DMN and CEN configuration by means of brain activity and functional connectivity analyses in experienced meditators across three back-to-back functional magnetic resonance imaging scans: Pre-meditation baseline (trait), meditation (state), and post-meditation (state-to-trait). Pre-meditation baseline group comparison was also performed between experienced meditators and healthy controls. Meditation trait was characterized by a significant reduction in activity and functional connectivity within DMN and increased anticorrelations between DMN and CEN. Conversely, meditation state and meditation state-to-trait periods showed increased activity and functional connectivity within the DMN and between DMN and CEN. However, the latter anticorrelations were only present in experienced meditators with limited practice. The interactions between networks during these states by means of Positive Diametric Activity (PDA) of the fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) defined as [Formula: see text] revealed no trait differences, but significant increases during meditation state that persisted in meditation state-to-trait. The gradual reconfiguration in DMN and CEN suggest a neural mechanism by which the CEN negatively regulates the DMN and is probably responsible for the long-term trait changes seen in meditators and reported psychological well-being.Significance Statement We introduce a Positive Diametric Activity (PDA) metric to measure the relation between two anticorrelated rs-fMRI networks in experienced meditators. PDA as well as functional connectivity (FC) are increased during meditation compared to resting state and persists in the post meditation resting state. Conversely, meditation trait is characterized by positive PDA but with significant reduction in activity and functional connectivity within Default Mode Network (DMN) and increased anticorrelations between DMN and central executive network (CEN). PDA and FC between DMN and CEN distinguish meditation state-to-trait effects.

PMID: 31694816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[A preliminary study of resting-state fMRI in patients with diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome after pinaverium bromide combined treatment with flupentixol-melitracen].

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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[A preliminary study of resting-state fMRI in patients with diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome after pinaverium bromide combined treatment with flupentixol-melitracen].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Nov 05;99(41):3266-3272

Authors: Li J, Guo Y, Lu XQ, Li GX, Yang Y, Li L, Ding JP

Abstract
Objective: To observe the difference of brain activity in patients with diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) treated with pinaverium bromide (PB) combined with flupentixol-melitracen (FM), and to explore the mechanism of efficacy of combined with anxiolytic/antidepressant drugs in IBS-D patients at the central level, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Forty-eight patients with IBS-D, including 28 males, 20 females, mean age 22-48 (33±7) years, were selected from the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University from October 2015 to October 2018.All patients with IBS-D underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after receiving either PB (basic treatment group, n=16), PB combined with FM (combination therapy group, n=16), or no medication (no treatment group, n=16). Rs-fMRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) parameter among the three groups of patients were compared using One-way ANOVA analysis and post analysis.Partial correlation and mediation analyses were performed on ReHo values and the improvement of symptoms scores (gastrointestinal symptom rating scale(GSRS) and hospital anxiety/depression scale (HAD)) in the two medicated groups. Results: No significant differences in ReHo values were observed among the three groups before treatment. Compared with patients on no-medication, patients receiving either PB or PB-FM showed decreased ReHo in the striatum, insular lobe, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and subcallosal gyrus, and increased ReHo in the occipital cortex. In particular, the combined treatment group showed more extensive decreased ReHo in the left thalamus and left temporal pole, and increased in the left precuneus. Compared with the basic treatment group, the combined treatment group showed decreased ReHo in the right putamen, right insula, right MPFC and subcallosal gyrus, and increased ReHo in the left precuneus. In addition, the combined treatment group demonstrated a positive correlation between ReHo values in the left thalamus and the improvement of HAD score (r=0.653, P=0.011) , and a negative correlation between ReHo values in left precuneus and the improvement of GSRS and HAD score (r=-0.771, P=0.001; r=-0.716, P=0.004). ReHo values in the left precuneus were observed to mediate between gastrointestinal symptoms and anxiety-depressive symptoms in the combined treatment group. Conclusions: The efficacy of PB combined with FM is superior to PB alone in the treatment of IBS. In addition to more extensive changes in pain-related brain areas, IBS-D patients treated with anxiolytic/antidepressant also show changes in default network and brain areas related to emotional regulation, and are associated with improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety and depression.

PMID: 31694124 [PubMed - in process]

Resting-state functional connectivity predicts individual language impairment of patients with left hemispheric gliomas involving language network.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Resting-state functional connectivity predicts individual language impairment of patients with left hemispheric gliomas involving language network.

Neuroimage Clin. 2019 Oct 19;24:102023

Authors: Yuan B, Zhang N, Yan J, Cheng J, Lu J, Wu J

Abstract
Language deficits following brain tumors should consider the dynamic interactions between different tumor growth kinetics and functional network reorganization. We measured the resting-state functional connectivity of 126 patients with left cerebral gliomas involving language network areas, including 77 patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 49 patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Functional network mapping for language was performed by construction of a multivariate machine learning-based prediction model of individual aphasia quotient (AQ), a summary score that indicates overall severity of language impairment. We found that the AQ scores for HGG patients were significantly lower than those of LGG patients. The prediction accuracy of HGG patients (R2 = 0.27, permutation P = 0.007) was much higher than that of LGG patients (R2 = 0.09, permutation P = 0.032). The rsFC regions predictive of LGG's AQ involved the bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, subcortical regions, and bilateral cerebro-cerebellar connections, mainly in regions belonging to the canonical language network. The functional network of language processing for HGG patients showed strong dependence on connections of the left cerebro-cerebellar connections, limbic system, and the temporal, occipital, and prefrontal lobes. Together, our findings suggested that individual language processing of glioma patients links large-scale, bilateral, cortico-subcortical, and cerebro-cerebellar functional networks with different network reorganizational mechanisms underlying the different levels of language impairments in LGG and HGG patients.

PMID: 31693978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Implications of the putamen in pain and motor deficits in complex regional pain syndrome.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Implications of the putamen in pain and motor deficits in complex regional pain syndrome.

Pain. 2019 Nov 04;:

Authors: Azqueta-Gavaldon M, Youssef AM, Storz C, Lemme J, Schulte-Göcking H, Becerra L, Azad SC, Reiners A, Ertl-Wagner B, Borsook D, Upadhyay J, Kraft E

Abstract
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) develops after limb injury, with persistent pain and deficits in movement frequently co-occurring. The striatum is critical for mediating multiple mechanisms that are often aberrant in CRPS, which includes sensory and pain processing, motor function and goal-directed behaviors associated with movement. Yet much remains unknown with regards to the morphological and functional properties of the striatum and its sub-regions in this disease. Thus, we investigated 20, patients (15 female, age 58 ± 9 years, right-handed) diagnosed with chronic (6+ months of pain duration) CRPS in the right hand and 20 matched, healthy controls with anatomical and resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition, a comprehensive clinical and behavioral evaluation was performed, where each participant's pain, motor function and medical history were assessed. CRPS patients harbored significant abnormalities in hand coordination, dexterity and strength. These clinical pain and movement-related findings in CRPS patients were concomitant with bilateral decreases in gray matter density in the putamen as well as functional connectivity increases and decreases amongst the putamen and pre-/postcentral gyri and cerebellum, respectively. Importantly, higher levels of clinical pain and motor impairment were associated with increased putamen-pre-/postcentral gyri functional connectivity strengths. Collectively, these findings suggest that putaminal alterations, specifically the functional interactions with sensorimotor structures, may underpin clinical pain and motor impairment in chronic CRPS patients.

PMID: 31693538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Real-time presurgical resting-state fMRI in patients with brain tumors: Quality control and comparison with task-fMRI and intraoperative mapping.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Real-time presurgical resting-state fMRI in patients with brain tumors: Quality control and comparison with task-fMRI and intraoperative mapping.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Nov 06;:

Authors: Vakamudi K, Posse S, Jung R, Cushnyr B, Chohan MO

Abstract
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is a promising task-free functional imaging approach, which may complement or replace task-based fMRI (tfMRI) in patients who have difficulties performing required tasks. However, rsfMRI is highly sensitive to head movement and physiological noise, and validation relative to tfMRI and intraoperative electrocortical mapping is still necessary. In this study, we investigate (a) the feasibility of real-time rsfMRI for presurgical mapping of eloquent networks with monitoring of data quality in patients with brain tumors and (b) rsfMRI localization of eloquent cortex compared with tfMRI and intraoperative electrocortical stimulation (ECS) in retrospective analysis. Five brain tumor patients were studied with rsfMRI and tfMRI on a clinical 3T scanner using MultiBand(8)-echo planar imaging (EPI) with repetition time: 400 ms. Moving-averaged sliding-window correlation analysis with regression of motion parameters and signals from white matter and cerebrospinal fluid was used to map sensorimotor and language resting-state networks. Data quality monitoring enabled rapid optimization of scan protocols, early identification of task noncompliance, and head movement-related false-positive connectivity to determine scan continuation or repetition. Sensorimotor and language resting-state networks were identifiable within 1 min of scan time. The Euclidean distance between ECS and rsfMRI connectivity and task-activation in motor cortex, Broca's, and Wernicke's areas was 5-10 mm, with the exception of discordant rsfMRI and ECS localization of Wernicke's area in one patient due to possible cortical reorganization and/or altered neurovascular coupling. This study demonstrates the potential of real-time high-speed rsfMRI for presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex with real-time data quality control, and clinically acceptable concordance of rsfMRI with tfMRI and ECS localization.

PMID: 31692177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Finger Tapping Task Activation vs. TMS Hotspot: Different Locations and Networks.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Finger Tapping Task Activation vs. TMS Hotspot: Different Locations and Networks.

Brain Topogr. 2019 Nov 06;:

Authors: Wang J, Meng HJ, Ji GJ, Jing Y, Wang HX, Deng XP, Feng ZJ, Zhao N, Zang YF, Zhang J

Abstract
Both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been used to non-invasively localize the human motor functional area. These locations can be clinically used as stimulation target of TMS treatment. However, it has been reported that the finger tapping fMRI activation and TMS hotspot were not well-overlapped. The aim of the current study was to measure the distance between the finger tapping fMRI activation and the TMS hotspot, and more importantly, to compare the network difference by using resting-state fMRI. Thirty healthy participants underwent resting-state fMRI, task fMRI, and then TMS hotspot localization. We found significant difference of locations between finger tapping fMRI activation and TMS hotspot. Specifically, the finger tapping fMRI activation was more lateral than the TMS hotspot in the premotor area. The fMRI activation peak and TMS hotspot were taken as seeds for resting-state functional connectivity analyses. Compared with TMS hotspot, finger tapping fMRI activation peak showed more intensive functional connectivity with, e.g., the bilateral premotor, insula, putamen, and right globus pallidus. The findings more intensive networks of finger tapping activation than TMS hotspot suggest that TMS treatment targeting on the fMRI activation area might result in more remote effects and would be more helpful for TMS treatment on movement disorders.

PMID: 31691912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neural and functional correlates of impaired reading ability in schizophrenia.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Neural and functional correlates of impaired reading ability in schizophrenia.

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 05;9(1):16022

Authors: Dondé C, Martinez A, Sehatpour P, Patel GH, Kraut R, Kantrowitz JT, Javitt DC

Abstract
Deficits in early auditory processing (EAP) are a core component of schizophrenia (SZ) and contribute significantly to impaired overall function. Here, we evaluate the potential contributions of EAP-related impairments in reading to functional capacity and outcome, relative to effects of auditory social cognitive and general neurocognitive dysfunction. Participants included 30-SZ and 28-controls of similar age, sex, and educational achievement. EAP was assessed using an auditory working memory (tone-matching) task. Phonological processing and reading Fluency were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing and Woodcock-Johnson reading batteries, respectively. Auditory-related social cognition was assessed using measures of emotion/sarcasm recognition. Functional capacity and outcome were assessed using the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment and Specific Level of Functioning scale, respectively. fMRI resting-state functional-connectivity (rsFC) was used to evaluate potential underlying substrates. As predicted, SZ patients showed significant and interrelated deficits in both phonological processing (d = 0.74, p = 0.009) and reading fluency (d = 1.24, p < 0.00005). By contrast, single word reading (d = 0.35, p = 0.31) was intact. In SZ, deficits in EAP and phonological reading ability significantly predicted reduced functional capacity, but not functional outcome. By contrast, deficits in reading fluency significantly predicted impairments in both functional capacity and functional outcome. Moreover, deficits in reading fluency correlated with rsFC alterations among auditory thalamus, early auditory and auditory association regions. These findings indicate significant contributions of EAP deficits and functional connectivity changes in subcortical and early auditory regions to reductions in reading fluency, and of impaired reading ability to impaired functional outcome in SZ.

PMID: 31690846 [PubMed - in process]

Tracking the Brain State Transition Process of Dynamic Function Connectivity Based on Resting State fMRI.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Tracking the Brain State Transition Process of Dynamic Function Connectivity Based on Resting State fMRI.

Comput Intell Neurosci. 2019;2019:9027803

Authors: Liu C, Xue J, Cheng X, Zhan W, Xiong X, Wang B

Abstract
BOLD-fMRI technology provides a good foundation for the research of human brain dynamic functional connectivity and brain state analysis. However, due to the complexity of brain function connectivity and the high dimensionality expression of brain dynamic attributions, more research studies are focusing on tracking the time-varying characteristics through the transition between different brain states. The transition process is considered to occur instantaneously at some special time point in the above research studies, whereas our work found the brain state transition may be completed in a time section gradually rather than instantaneously. In this paper, a brain state conversion rate model is constructed to observe the procedure of brain state transition trend at each time point, and the state change can be observed by the values of conversion rate. According to the results, the transition of status always lasts for a few time points, and a brain state network model with both steady state and transition state is presented. Network topological overlap coefficient is built to analyze the features of time-varying networks. With this method, some common regular patterns of time-varying characteristics can be observed strongly in healthy children but not in the autism children. This distinct can help us to distinguish children with autism from healthy children.

PMID: 31687008 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormal intrinsic functional activity in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a resting-state fMRI study.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Abnormal intrinsic functional activity in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a resting-state fMRI study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019;15:2371-2383

Authors: Kuang C, Zha Y

Abstract
Purpose: We employed resting-state fMRI analyses to reveal central functional reorganization in the brains of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and to provide complementary evidence of cortex reorganization in these patients.
Patients and methods: We obtained Fisher's z transformation amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (zALFF) and Fisher's z transformation regional homogeneity (zReHo) measurements from 33 patients with CSM and 33 healthy controls (HC) and used the brain regions with significant alterations in the zALFF or zReHo values as seed regions. Then, we calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients between the resting-state time courses of each seed and the time series of the rest of the brain. Lastly, we computed correlations between the altered zALFF, zReHo, and functional connectivity with Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores, Neck Disability Index score, and the duration of symptoms in patients with CSM.
Results: zALFF and zReHo values were increased in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (lSFGmed) and left supramarginal gyrus (lSMG) in patients with CSM compared with those in the HC group. Selecting lSFGmed as the seed, we observed increased functional connectivity between it and the left postcentral gyrus (lPoCG) and left rolandic operculum and decreased functional connectivity with the right medial superior frontal gyrus in patients with CSM. In addition, there was a significant increase in the functional connectivity between the lSMG (seed) and the left calcarine and lPoCG in patients with CSM. However, we did not find any significant correlation between the resting-state findings and the clinical performance of patients with CSM.
Conclusion: These observed intrinsic functional changes in the patients with CSM may be related to functional reorganization and reflect the innate cortical plasticity in patients with CSM. Notably, the increased connectivity between the lPoCG and the two seed ROIs indicates the adaptive changes in patients with CSM. These findings provide complementary evidence of cortex reorganization in CSM.

PMID: 31686821 [PubMed]

Intrinsic Functional Connectivity is Organized as Three Interdependent Gradients.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Intrinsic Functional Connectivity is Organized as Three Interdependent Gradients.

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 04;9(1):15976

Authors: Zhang J, Abiose O, Katsumi Y, Touroutoglou A, Dickerson BC, Barrett LF

Abstract
The intrinsic functional architecture of the brain supports moment-to-moment maintenance of an internal model of the world. We hypothesized and found three interdependent architectural gradients underlying the organization of intrinsic functional connectivity within the human cerebral cortex. We used resting state fMRI data from two samples of healthy young adults (N's = 280 and 270) to generate functional connectivity maps of 109 seeds culled from published research, estimated their pairwise similarities, and multidimensionally scaled the resulting similarity matrix. We discovered an optimal three-dimensional solution, accounting for 98% of the variance within the similarity matrix. The three dimensions corresponded to three gradients, which spatially correlate with two functional features (external vs. internal sources of information; content representation vs. attentional modulation) and one structural feature (anatomically central vs. peripheral) of the brain. Remapping the three dimensions into coordinate space revealed that the connectivity maps were organized in a circumplex structure, indicating that the organization of intrinsic connectivity is jointly guided by graded changes along all three dimensions. Our findings emphasize coordination between multiple, continuous functional and anatomical gradients, and are consistent with the emerging predictive coding perspective.

PMID: 31685830 [PubMed - in process]

Functional connectome of the fetal brain.

Fri, 11/08/2019 - 06:15
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Functional connectome of the fetal brain.

J Neurosci. 2019 Nov 04;:

Authors: Turk E, van den Heuvel MI, Benders MJ, de Heus R, Franx A, Manning JH, Hect JL, Hernandez-Andrade E, Hassan SS, Romero R, Kahn RS, Thomason ME, van den Heuvel MP

Abstract
Large-scale functional connectome formation and re-organization is apparent in the second trimester of pregnancy, making it a crucial and vulnerable time window in connectome development. Here we identified which architectural principles of functional connectome organization are initiated prior to birth, and contrast those with topological characteristics observed in the mature adult brain. A sample of 105 pregnant women participated in human fetal resting-state fMRI studies (fetal gestational age between 20 and 40 weeks). Connectome analysis was used to analyze weighted network characteristics of fetal macroscale brain wiring. We identified efficient network attributes, common functional modules and high overlap between the fetal and adult brain network. Our results indicate that key features of the functional connectome are present in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Understanding the organizational principles of fetal connectome organization may bring opportunities to develop markers for early detection of alterations of brain function.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe fetal to neonatal period is well known as a critical stage in brain development. Rapid neurodevelopmental processes establish key functional neural circuits of the human brain. Prenatal risk factors may interfere with early trajectories of connectome formation and thereby shape future health outcomes. Recent advances in MRI have made it possible to examine fetal brain functional connectivity. In this study, we evaluate the network topography of normative functional network development during connectome genesis in utero Understanding the developmental trajectory of brain connectivity provides a basis for understanding how the prenatal period shapes future brain function and disease dysfunction.

PMID: 31685648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Brain functional basis of subjective well-being during negative facial emotion processing task-based fMRI.

Tue, 11/05/2019 - 21:13
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Brain functional basis of subjective well-being during negative facial emotion processing task-based fMRI.

Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 01;:

Authors: Ren Z, Shi L, Wei D, Qiu J

Abstract
Subjective well-being (SWB) is the eternal pursuit of all mankind. Individual differences in SWB may reflect the way of emotional processing. Neuroimaging studies have partly examined the neural mechanism of the individual differences in SWB using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the individual differences in SWB and brain functional connectivity during facial emotion processing task. Here, we applied negative facial emotion processing task-based fMRI to explore the brain functional basis of the individual differences in SWB. Results showed that SWB is positively correlated with the activation of right posterior cingulate cortex, left interior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus for the comparison of negative stimulus and neutral stimulus, revealing that happy individuals may be more proactive to use attention transfer and behavioral inhibition strategies to decrease negative experiences during negative emotional processing. In addition, high SWB is associated with strong functional connectivity between high-level cognitive networks (e.g., frontal-parietal network) and low-level perceptual networks (e.g., sensorimotor network), and weak functional connectivity within default mode network and within low-level perceptual networks, indicating that the self-reflection, emotional regulation and cognitive control during negative facial emotion processing underlies the individual differences in SWB. These findings provide a novel insight to characterize the brain functional basis of the individual differences in SWB.

PMID: 31682958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exploring the effects of near infrared light on resting and evoked brain activity in humans using magnetic resonance imaging.

Tue, 11/05/2019 - 21:13
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Exploring the effects of near infrared light on resting and evoked brain activity in humans using magnetic resonance imaging.

Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 01;:

Authors: El Khoury H, Mitrofanis J, Henderson LA

Abstract
We explore whether near infrared light can change patterns of resting (task-negative) and/or evoked (task-positive; eg finger-tapping) brain activity in normal, young human subjects using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). To this end, we used a vielight transcranial device (810nm) and compared the scans in subjects after active- and sham-light sessions. Our fMRI results showed that, while light had no effect on cerebral blood flow and global resting state brain activity (task-negative), there were clear differences between the active- and sham-light sessions in the patterns of evoked brain activity after finger-tapping (task-positive). The evoked brain regions included the putamen, primary somatosensory and parietal association cortex, and the overall effect of the light was to suppress or reduce their activity. We also found that while light had no effect on the resting functional connectivity of the putamen and primary somatosensory cortex and the rest of the brain, it did have an effect on the functional connectivity of parietal association cortex. In summary, our fMRI findings indicated that transcranially applied light did have a major impact on brain activity in normal subjects, but only when the brain region was itself functionally active, when undertaking a particular task. We suggest that these light-induced changes, particularly those in parietal association cortex, were associated with attention and novelty, and served to deactivate the so-called default mode network. Our results lay the template for our planned fMRI explorations into the effects of light in both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease patients.

PMID: 31682952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]