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FMRI response to acute psychological stress differentiates patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures from healthy controls - A biochemical and neuroimaging biomarker study.

Mon, 08/26/2019 - 22:22
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FMRI response to acute psychological stress differentiates patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures from healthy controls - A biochemical and neuroimaging biomarker study.

Neuroimage Clin. 2019 Aug 06;24:101967

Authors: Allendorfer JB, Nenert R, Hernando KA, DeWolfe JL, Pati S, Thomas AE, Billeaud N, Martin RC, Szaflarski JP

Abstract
We investigated psychological stress response in the brain regions involved in emotion-motor-executive control in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). 12 PNES patients and 12 healthy controls (HCs) underwent stress task and resting state functional MRI (fMRI), mood and quality of life (QOL) assessments, and measurements of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and heart rate. Group differences were assessed, and we correlated beta values from a priori selected brain regions showing stress task fMRI group differences with other stress response measures. We also used the regions showing stress task fMRI group differences as seeds for resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analysis. Mood and QOL were worse in PNES versus HCs. Physiological and assessment measures were similar except 'Planful Problem Solving' coping that was greater for HCs (p = .043). Perceived stress associated negatively with heart rate change (rs = -0.74, p = .0063). There was stress fMRI hyporeactivity in left/right amygdala and left hippocampus in PNES versus HCs (corrected p < .05). PNES exhibited a positive association between alpha-amylase change and right amygdala activation (rs = 0.71, p = .010). PNES versus HCs exhibited greater right amygdala rs-FC to left precentral and inferior/middle frontal gyri (corrected p < .05). Our findings of fMRI hyporeactivity to psychological stress, along with greater emotion-motor-executive control network rs-FC in PNES when compared to HCs suggest a dysregulation in stress response circuitry in PNES.

PMID: 31446314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Anosognosia and default mode subnetwork dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 22:21
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Anosognosia and default mode subnetwork dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Aug 24;:

Authors: Antoine N, Bahri MA, Bastin C, Collette F, Phillips C, Balteau E, Genon S, Salmon E

Abstract
Research on the neural correlates of anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease varied according to methods and objectives: they compared different measures, used diverse neuroimaging modalities, explored connectivity between brain networks, addressed the role of specific brain regions or tried to give support to theoretical models of unawareness. We used resting-state fMRI connectivity with two different seed regions and two measures of anosognosia in different patient samples to investigate consistent modifications of default mode subnetworks and we aligned the results with the Cognitive Awareness Model. In a first study, patients and their relatives were presented with the Memory Awareness Rating Scale. Anosognosia was measured as a patient-relative discrepancy score and connectivity was investigated with a parahippocampal seed. In a second study, anosognosia was measured in patients with brain amyloid (taken as a disease biomarker) by comparing self-reported rating with memory performance, and connectivity was examined with a hippocampal seed. In both studies, anosognosia was consistently related to disconnection within the medial temporal subsystem of the default mode network, subserving episodic memory processes. Importantly, scores were also related to disconnection between the medial temporal and both the core subsystem (participating to self-reflection) and the dorsomedial subsystem of the default mode network (the middle temporal gyrus that might subserve a personal database in the second study). We suggest that disparity in connectivity within and between subsystems of the default mode network may reflect impaired functioning of pathways in cognitive models of awareness.

PMID: 31444942 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

What can we learn from fMRI capture of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease?

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 22:21
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What can we learn from fMRI capture of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease?

Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Aug 23;:

Authors: Dujardin K, Roman D, Baille G, Pins D, Lefebvre S, Delmaire C, Defebvre L, Jardri R

Abstract
With disease progression, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may have chronic visual hallucinations (VH). The mechanisms behind this invalidating non-motor symptom remain largely unknown, namely because it is extremely difficult to capture hallucination events. This study aimed to describe the patterns of brain functional changes when VH occur in PD patients. Nine PD patients were enrolled because of their frequent and chronic VH (> 10/day). Patients with severe cognitive decline (MMSE<18) were excluded. Patients were scanned during ON/OFF hallucinatory states and resting-state functional imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed. Data were analyzed in reference to the two-step method, which consists in: (i) a data-driven analysis of per-hallucinatory fMRI data, and (ii) selection of the components of interest based on a post-fMRI interview. The phenomenology of VH ranged from visual spots to distorting faces. First, at the individual level, several VH-related components of interest were identified and integrated in a second-level analysis. Using a random-effects self-organizing-group ICA, we evidenced increased connectivity in visual networks concomitant to VH, encompassing V2, V3 and the fusiform gyri bilaterally. Interestingly, the stability of the default-mode network (DMN) was found positively correlated with VH severity (Spearman's rho = 0.77, p = 0.05). By using a method that does not need online self-report, we showed that VH in PD patients were associated with functional changes in associative visual cortices, possibly linked with strengthened stability of resting-state networks.

PMID: 31444780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Inconsistency between cortical reorganization and functional connectivity alteration in the sensorimotor cortex following incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 22:21
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Inconsistency between cortical reorganization and functional connectivity alteration in the sensorimotor cortex following incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Aug 23;:

Authors: Li X, Chen Q, Zheng W, Chen X, Wang L, Qin W, Li K, Lu J, Chen N

Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore whether there will be any alterations in sensorimotor-related cortex and the possible causes of sensorimotor dysfunction after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (ICSCI). Structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) of nineteen ICSCI patients and nineteen healthy controls (HCs) was acquired. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics were performed to assess differences in gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter integrity between ICSCI patients and HCs. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed using the results of VBM as seeds. Associations between the clinical variables and the brain changes were studied. Compared with HCs, ICSCI patients demonstrated reduced GMV in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) but no changes in areas directly related to sensorimotor function. There were no significant differences in brain white matter. Additionally, the FC in the left primary sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum decreased when the FG and OFC, respectively, were used as seeds. Subsequent relevance analysis suggests a weak positive correlation between the left OFC's GMV and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. In conclusion, brain structural changes following ICSCI occur mainly in certain higher cognitive regions, such as the FG and OFC, rather than in the brain areas directly related to sensation or motor control. The functional areas of the brain that are related to cognitive processing may play an important role in sensorimotor dysfunction through the decreased FC with sensorimotor areas after ICSCI. Therefore, cognition-related functional training may play an important role in rehabilitation of sensorimotor function after ICSCI.

PMID: 31444779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of Overweight or Obesity on Brain Resting State Functional Connectivity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 22:21
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Effects of Overweight or Obesity on Brain Resting State Functional Connectivity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Aug 23;:

Authors: Kahathuduwa CN, West B, Mastergeorge A

Abstract
Evidence on neurophysiological correlates of coexisting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and overweight/obesity may elucidate mechanisms leading to the observed greater risk of obesity in children with ASD. An exploratory secondary data analysis was performed on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of children downloaded from the ABIDE Preprocessed database (n = 81). Children with isolated ASD showed hypo-connectivity between anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN) (p = 0.003; FWER). Children with coexisting ASD and overweight/obesity showed hyper-connectivity between anterior and posterior DMN (p = 0.015; FWER). More evidence is needed to confirm these contrasting rs-fMRI connectivity profiles and to explicate causal inferences regarding neurophysiological mechanisms associated with coexisting ASD and overweight/obesity.

PMID: 31444629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Investigation of an emotion perception test using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 22:21
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Investigation of an emotion perception test using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2019 Oct;179:104994

Authors: Bae S, Kang KD, Kim SW, Shin YJ, Nam JJ, Han DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with mood disorders are known to have an emotion recognition deficit in facial emotion processing. Emotion perception involves two systems of cognitive and affective processes associated with brain activation in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortices. To overcome the limitations of existing emotion perception tests, we designed an emotion perception index to assess the individuals' mood status.
METHODS: We selected 66 emotional faces (22 pleasant, 22 unpleasant, and 22 neutral) for the emotion perception test and recruited 40 healthy participants to verify the test. The participants completed a demographic data questionnaire and were administered the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI). They were also scanned to assess the brain functional connectivity (FC) between seeds of the fusiform gyrus and other brain regions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). After rs-fMRI scanning, the participants were administered the emotion perception test on a computer.
RESULTS: In response to 108 questions regarding emotional face differentiation, the study group showed an average correct-answer rate of 90.7 ± 6.4% and a mean reaction time of 1.4 ± 0.4 s. We created an emotion perception index from the calculation of correct rate, number of correct responses, and reaction time in response to 108 questions; the mean of the emotion perception index in the study group was 3.8 ± 0.2. The emotion perception index was positively correlated with the BDI scores (r = 0.4, p = 0.01); further, it was positively correlated with the FC from the fusiform gyrus to the left superior frontal gyrus (FDRq < 0.01), left medial frontal gyrus (FDRq < 0.01), left frontal precentral gyrus (FDRq = 0.02), left insula (FDRq < 0.01), and left occipital cuneus (FDRq = 0.01). The FC from the fusiform gyrus to the left insula was positively correlated with the BDI scores (r = 0.59, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The emotion perception index designed in this study may correctly indicate the mood status of individuals. In addition, the emotion perception test was associated with brain FC from the fusiform gyrus to the frontal and insular cortices.

PMID: 31443867 [PubMed - in process]

Functional connectivity mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 01:21
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Functional connectivity mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity.

Neurosci Lett. 2019 Aug 20;:134442

Authors: Li Y, Huo T, Zhuang K, Song L, Wang X, Ren Z, Liu Q, Qiu J

Abstract
Curiosity is an important driving force for human development. This study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (n = 400) and a cross-validation-based predictive framework based on the functional connectivity between and within the default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal task control network (FPN), and salience network (SN) to explore the relationship between these and curiosity. We found that the curiosity network consisting of functional connections in DMN, FPN, and SN can successfully predict curiosity, and the functional connections within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and between its nodes and the angular gyrus (AG) made a greater contribution to prediction power. More important, although curiosity has long been considered the main intrinsic motivation of learning and self-efficacy (individual's confidence in his or her own ability) is the primary factor affecting learning motivation, few studies have explored the relationship between the two. Therefore, we speculated that the relationship between the curiosity brain network and curiosity might also be related to self-efficacy. In this study, the strength of the curiosity network was calculated as a mediation variable to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity. The results revealed that the strength of the curiosity brain network mediates the association between self-efficacy and curiosity score. Our findings suggest that self-efficacy plays an important role in shaping individuals' trait curiosity and extends understanding of the neural mechanism of curiosity.

PMID: 31442514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

MAOA-VNTR genotype affects structural and functional connectivity in distributed brain networks.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 01:21
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MAOA-VNTR genotype affects structural and functional connectivity in distributed brain networks.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Aug 23;:

Authors: Harneit A, Braun U, Geiger LS, Zang Z, Hakobjan M, van Donkelaar MMJ, Schweiger JI, Schwarz K, Gan G, Erk S, Heinz A, Romanczuk-Seiferth N, Witt S, Rietschel M, Walter H, Franke B, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Tost H

Abstract
Previous studies have linked the low expression variant of a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-L) to the risk for impulsivity and aggression, brain developmental abnormalities, altered cortico-limbic circuit function, and an exaggerated neural serotonergic tone. However, the neurobiological effects of this variant on human brain network architecture are incompletely understood. We studied healthy individuals and used multimodal neuroimaging (sample size range: 219-284 across modalities) and network-based statistics (NBS) to probe the specificity of MAOA-L-related connectomic alterations to cortical-limbic circuits and the emotion processing domain. We assessed the spatial distribution of affected links across several neuroimaging tasks and data modalities to identify potential alterations in network architecture. Our results revealed a distributed network of node links with a significantly increased connectivity in MAOA-L carriers compared to the carriers of the high expression (H) variant. The hyperconnectivity phenotype primarily consisted of between-lobe ("anisocoupled") network links and showed a pronounced involvement of frontal-temporal connections. Hyperconnectivity was observed across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of implicit emotion processing (pFWE = .037), resting-state fMRI (pFWE = .022), and diffusion tensor imaging (pFWE = .044) data, while no effects were seen in fMRI data of another cognitive domain, that is, spatial working memory (pFWE = .540). These observations are in line with prior research on the MAOA-L variant and complement these existing data by novel insights into the specificity and spatial distribution of the neurogenetic effects. Our work highlights the value of multimodal network connectomic approaches for imaging genetics.

PMID: 31441562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Metabolic Activity of Caudate and Prefrontal Cortex Negatively Correlates with the Severity of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 01:21
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The Metabolic Activity of Caudate and Prefrontal Cortex Negatively Correlates with the Severity of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.

Aging Dis. 2019 Aug;10(4):847-853

Authors: Chu JS, Liu TH, Wang KL, Han CL, Liu YP, Michitomo S, Zhang JG, Fang T, Meng FG

Abstract
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan with tracer [18F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) is widely used to measure the glucose metabolism in neurodegenerative disease such as Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Previous studies using 18F-FDG PET mainly focused on the motor or non-motor symptoms but not the severity of IPD. In this study, we aimed to determine the metabolic patterns of 18F-FDG in different stages of IPD defined by Hoehn and Yahr rating scale (H-Y rating scale) and to identify regions in the brain that play critical roles in disease progression. Fifty IPD patients were included in this study. They were 29 men and 21 women (mean±SD, age 57.7±11.1 years, disease duration 4.0±3.8 years, H-Y 2.2±1.1). Twenty healthy individuals were included as normal controls. Following 18F-FDG PET scan, image analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST). The metabolic feature of IPD and regions-of-interests (ROIs) were determined. Correlation analysis between ROIs and H-Y stage was performed. SPM analysis demonstrated a significant hypometabolic activity in bilateral putamen, caudate and anterior cingulate as well as left parietal lobe, prefrontal cortex in IPD patients. In contrast, hypermetabolism was observed in the cerebellum and vermis. There was a negative correlation (p=0.007, r=-0.412) between H-Y stage and caudate metabolic activity. Moreover, the prefrontal area also showed a negative correlation with H-Y (P=0.033, r=-0.334). Thus, the uptake of FDG in caudate and prefrontal cortex can potentially be used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the severity of IPD.

PMID: 31440389 [PubMed]

Effects of Estradiol Therapy on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Transgender Women After Gender-Affirming Related Gonadectomy.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 01:21
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Effects of Estradiol Therapy on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Transgender Women After Gender-Affirming Related Gonadectomy.

Front Neurosci. 2019;13:817

Authors: Schneider MA, Spritzer PM, Minuzzi L, Frey BN, Syan SK, Fighera TM, Schwarz K, Costa ÂB, da Silva DC, Garcia CCG, Fontanari AMV, Real AG, Anes M, Castan JU, Cunegatto FR, Lobato MIR

Abstract
An extreme incongruence between sex and gender identity leads individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) to seek cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), and gender-affirming surgery (GAS). Although few studies have investigated the effects of CSHT on the brain prior to GAS, no studies in the extant literature have evaluated its impact during hypogonadism in post-GAS individuals. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of estradiol on resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and basal ganglia following surgical hypogonadism. Eighteen post-GAS (male-to-female) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychiatric and hormonal assessment at two time points (t1, hormonal washout; t2, CSHT reintroduction). Based on the literature, the thalamus was selected as a seed, while the SMC and the dorsolateral striatum were targets for seed-based functional connectivity (sbFC). A second sbFC investigation consisted of a whole-brain voxel exploratory analysis again using the thalamus as a seed. A final complementary data-driven approach using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was conducted to identify a potential seed for further sbFC analyses. An increase in the rs-FC between the left thalamus and the left SCM/putamen followed CSHT. MVPA identified a cluster within the subcallosal cortex (SubCalC) representing the highest variation in peak activation between time points. Setting the SubCalC as a seed, whole-brain analysis showed a decoupling between the SubCalC and the medial frontal cortex during CSHT. These results indicate that CSHT with estradiol post-GAS, modulates rs-FC in regions engaged in cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor processes.

PMID: 31440128 [PubMed]

Functional connectivity impairment of postcentral gyrus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with somatosensory disorder.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 01:21
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Functional connectivity impairment of postcentral gyrus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with somatosensory disorder.

Eur J Radiol. 2019 Sep;118:200-206

Authors: Fu J, Chen X, Gu Y, Xie M, Zheng Q, Wang J, Zeng C, Li Y

Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize the spatial patterns of functional connectivity(FC) changes of whole brain in RRMS with somatosensory disorder(RRMS-SS) and to investigate the correlation between abnormal FC and clinical scores.
METHODS: Twenty-six RRMS-SS patients and 23 healthy controls(HC) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(RS-fMRI) scanning. The clinical scores were collected including Expanded Disability Status Scores(EDSS), Disease Duration and Somatosensory Evaluation by the Fugl-Meyer sensory score(FMSS). With the voxel-wise methods, RS-fMRI data were analyzed using REST software, to assess the FC of the postcentral gyrus(PoCG). Correlation between clinical variables and the strength of FC was analyzed.
RESULTS: Compared with HC, the left postcentral-based FC showed decreased FC of the right cerebellum_8, lingual lobe and Rolandic operculum gyrus, and increased FC of the left middle frontal lobe. The right postcentral-based FC revealed decreased FC with the right Heschl's gyrus lobule, and increased FC with bilateral middle frontal lobe (p <  0.001, AlphaSim corrected). Correlation analysis revealed that the FC of altered brain regions was associated with FMSS, EDSS and disease duration.
CONCLUSION: The functional connectivity of PoCG at RS-fMRI has multi-network changes in patients with RRMS-SS. This suggests a complex pattern of abnormal connections between the somatosensory network regions and the whole brain. Moreover, the correlation between the FC and the FMSS, such as the left middle frontal lobe and the right PoCG, indicate that these two brain regions play an important role in RRMS-SS.

PMID: 31439243 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormal spontaneous neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right superior temporal gyrus correlates with anhedonia severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 19:20
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Abnormal spontaneous neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right superior temporal gyrus correlates with anhedonia severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

J Affect Disord. 2019 Aug 13;259:47-55

Authors: Xia J, Fan J, Du H, Liu W, Li S, Zhu J, Yi J, Tan C, Zhu X

Abstract
BACKGROUD: Converging evidence indicated the presence of clinically significant anhedonia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Studying anhedonia and its neural correlates in OCD may be beneficial in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie anhedonia in OCD still remain unclear. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
METHODS: 29 OCD patients with anhedonia (OCD-AH), 31 OCD patients with normal hedonia (OCD-NH), and 30 healthy controls (HC) received the fMRI scan. The low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach was applied to compare spontaneous neural activity among the three groups. Relationships between the regional ALFFs and anhedonia levels were examined in OCD patients.
RESULT: OCD-AH and OCD-NH manifested overlapping but partially distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared to OCD-NH, the OCD-AH showed decreased ALFF in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and increased ALFF in medial prefontal cortex (MPFC). Moreover, ALFF values in the right STG were negatively correlated with social anhedonia severity, and ALFFs in the MPFC were positively correlated with both physical and social anhedonia severity in patients with OCD.
LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size; ALFF could not provide more holistic information of brain network.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that abnormal spontaneous neural activity in MPFC is associated with both physical and social anhedonia, while altered intrinsic brain function in right STG is specifically associated with social anhedonia in OCD. These findings contribute to our understandings of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying anhedonia in OCD.

PMID: 31437701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of ketamine on the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex-related circuits in treatment-resistant depression: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, longitudinal resting fMRI study.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 19:20
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Antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of ketamine on the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex-related circuits in treatment-resistant depression: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, longitudinal resting fMRI study.

J Affect Disord. 2019 Aug 14;259:15-20

Authors: Chen MH, Lin WC, Tu PC, Li CT, Bai YM, Tsai SJ, Su TP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that infusion of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine exerts antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
AIMS: In this investigation, we used the resting functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to determine the effects of ketamine on the functional connectivity (FC) of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related circuits in patients with TRD.
METHODS: Forty-eight patients with TRD were recruited and randomly divided into three groups on the basis of ketamine infusion dose: 0.5 mg/kg (standard dose), 0.2 mg/kg (low dose), or normal saline (a placebo infusion). Resting functional MRI data and clinical data were recorded at the baseline and on the third day after ketamine infusion treatment.
RESULTS: The standard-dose group showed a reduction in the FC of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right dorsolateral (dl)PFC with the other frontal regions. The low-dose group demonstrated a more pervasive reduction of FC in the bilateral dACC with other frontal and parietal regions. A negative correlation was observed between the reduction in suicidal ideation and the reduction in the FC between the left dACC and right ACC regions in the standard-dose group, whereas a positive correlation was observed between the reduction in suicidal ideation and the increase in the FC between the right dlPFC and left superior parietal region in the low-dose group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that PFC-related circuit modulation is crucial to the antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of the ketamine infusion treatment.

PMID: 31437695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Experience-dependent neuroplasticity in trained musicians modulates the effects of chronic pain on insula-based networks - A resting-state fMRI study.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 19:20
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Experience-dependent neuroplasticity in trained musicians modulates the effects of chronic pain on insula-based networks - A resting-state fMRI study.

Neuroimage. 2019 Aug 19;:116103

Authors: Zamorano AM, Montoya P, Cifre I, Vuust P, Riquelme I, Kleber B

Abstract
Recent resting-state fMRI studies associated extensive musical training with increased insula-based connectivity in large-scale networks involved in salience, emotion, and higher-order cognitive processes. Similar changes have also been found in chronic pain patients, suggesting that both types of experiences can have comparable effects on insula circuitries. Based on these observations, the current study asked the question whether, and if so in what way, different forms of experience-dependent neuroplasticity may interact. Here we assessed insula-based connectivity during fMRI resting-state between musicians and non-musicians both with and without chronic pain, and correlated the results with clinical pain duration and intensity. As expected, insula connectivity was increased in chronic pain non-musicians relative to healthy non-musicians (with cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area), yet no differences were found between chronic pain non-musicians and healthy musicians. In contrast, musicians with chronic pain showed decreased insula connectivity relative to both healthy musicians (with sensorimotor and memory regions) and chronic pain non-musicians (with the hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex), as well as lower pain-related inferences with daily activities. Pain duration correlated positively with insula connectivity only in non-musicians, whereas pain intensity exhibited distinct relationships across groups. We conclude that although music-related sensorimotor training and chronic pain, taken in isolation, can lead to increased insula-based connectivity, their combination may lead to higher-order plasticity (metaplasticity) in chronic pain musicians, engaging brain mechanisms that can modulate the consequences of maladaptive experience-dependent neural reorganization (i.e., pain chronification).

PMID: 31437550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

EPI distortion correction for concurrent human brain stimulation and imaging at 3T.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 04:19

EPI distortion correction for concurrent human brain stimulation and imaging at 3T.

J Neurosci Methods. 2019 Aug 18;:108400

Authors: Oh H, Kim JH, Yau JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be paired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in concurrent TMS-fMRI experiments. These multimodal experiments enable causal probing of network architecture in the human brain which can complement alternative network mapping approaches. Critically, merely introducing the TMS coil into the scanner environment can sometimes produce substantial magnetic field inhomogeneities and spatial distortions which limit the utility of concurrent TMS-fMRI.
METHOD AND RESULTS: We assessed the efficacy of point spread function corrected echo planar imaging (PSF-EPI) in correcting for the field inhomogeneities associated with a TMS coil at 3 T. In phantom and brain scans, we quantitatively compared the coil-induced distortion artifacts measured in EPI scans with and without PSF correction. We found that the application of PSF corrections to the EPI data significantly improved signal-to-noise and reduced distortions. In phantom scans with the PSF-EPI sequence, we also characterized the temporal profile of dynamic artifacts associated with TMS delivery and found that image quality remained high as long as the TMS pulse preceded the RF excitation pulses by at least 50 ms. Lastly, we validated the PSF-EPI sequence in human brain scans involving TMS and motor behavior as well as resting state fMRI scans.
CONCLUSIONS: Our collective results demonstrate the potential benefits of PSF-EPI for concurrent TMS-fMRI when coil-related artifacts are a concern. The ability to collect high quality resting state fMRI data in the same session as the concurrent TMS-fMRI experiment offers a unique opportunity to interrogate network architecture in the human brain.

PMID: 31434000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity following acupuncture stimulation at BaiHui (GV20) in first-episode drug-Naïve major depressive disorder.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 04:19
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Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity following acupuncture stimulation at BaiHui (GV20) in first-episode drug-Naïve major depressive disorder.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Aug 20;:

Authors: Duan G, He Q, Pang Y, Chen W, Liao H, Liu H, Tan L, Liu Y, Tao J, Zhang J, Wei X, Sun P, Liu P, Deng D

Abstract
Amygdala is an important locus of dysfunction implicated in major depressive disorder(MDD). Aberrant amygdala networks(AN) had been reported in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study. The safety and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for MDD have been verified in previous clinical studies. This study is aimed to investigate whether acupuncture at GV20 could modulate the abnormal AN of patients with the first-episode, drug-naïve MDD by using rs-fMRI combined with functional connectivity (FC) method. Thirty MDD patient underwent 6-min rs-fMRI scans respectively before and after 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulate(EAS) at GV20. Twenty-nine healthy subjects underwent only a 6-min rs-fMRI scan. Based on the amygdala as the seed region, FC method was adopted to examine abnormal AN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the AN in patients with MDD. Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients had aberrant intrinsic AN which mainly showed increased FC between amygdala and hippocampus, precuneus, precentral gyrus and angular gyrus, as well as decreased FC between amygdala and orbital frontal cortex(OFC). Moreover, our results indicated that EAS at GV20 induced increased/decreased FC between amygdala and certain regions in MDD patients. In addition, the intrinsic amygdala FC within other certain brain regions in MDD patients were regulated by EAS at GV20. The abnormal AN of MDD patients could be modulated by EAS at GV20. Our findings may further provide the potential imaging evidence to support the modulatory mechanisms of acupuncture on MDD.

PMID: 31432318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

"Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis": Answer to Wang and colleagues.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 04:19
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"Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis": Answer to Wang and colleagues.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019 Jul 12;:

Authors: Wolters AF, van de Weijer SCF, Leentjens AFG, Duits AA, Jacobs HIL, Kuijf ML

PMID: 31431324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Identification of traits and functional connectivity-based neurotraits of chronic pain.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 22:16
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Identification of traits and functional connectivity-based neurotraits of chronic pain.

PLoS Biol. 2019 Aug;17(8):e3000349

Authors: Vachon-Presseau E, Berger SE, Abdullah TB, Griffith JW, Schnitzer TJ, Apkarian AV

Abstract
Psychological and personality factors, socioeconomic status, and brain properties all contribute to chronic pain but have essentially been studied independently. Here, we administered a broad battery of questionnaires to patients with chronic back pain (CBP) and collected repeated sessions of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans. Clustering and network analyses applied on the questionnaire data revealed four orthogonal dimensions accounting for 56% of the variance and defining chronic pain traits. Two of these traits-Pain-trait and Emote-trait-were associated with back pain characteristics and could be related to distinct distributed functional networks in a cross-validation procedure, identifying neurotraits. These neurotraits showed good reliability across four fMRI sessions acquired over five weeks. Further, traits and neurotraits all related to the income, emphasizing the importance of socioeconomic status within the personality space of chronic pain. Our approach is a first step in providing metrics aimed at unifying the psychology and the neurophysiology of chronic pain applicable across diverse clinical conditions.

PMID: 31430270 [PubMed - in process]

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity of Children with Unilateral Amblyopia: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 22:16
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Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity of Children with Unilateral Amblyopia: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Neural Plast. 2019;2019:3681430

Authors: Dai P, Zhang J, Wu J, Chen Z, Zou B, Wu Y, Wei X, Xiao M

Abstract
Objective: This study is aimed at investigating differences in local brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) between children with unilateral amblyopia and healthy controls (HCs) by using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
Methods: Local activity and FC analysis methods were used to explore the altered spontaneous brain activity of children with unilateral amblyopia. Local brain function analysis methods included the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). FC analysis methods consisted of the FC between the primary visual cortex (PVC-FC) and other brain regions and the FC network between regions of interest (ROIs-FC) selected by independent component analysis.
Results: The ALFF in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the amblyopia group was lower than that in the HCs. The weakened PVC-FC was mainly concentrated in the frontal lobe and the angular gyrus. The ROIs-FC between the default mode network, salience network, and primary visual cortex network (PVCN) were significantly reduced, whereas the ROIs-FC between the PVCN and the high-level visual cortex network were significantly increased in amblyopia.
Conclusions: Unilateral amblyopia may reduce local brain activity and FC in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways and affect the top-down attentional control. Amblyopia may also alter FC between brain functional networks. These findings may help understand the pathological mechanisms of children with amblyopia.

PMID: 31428144 [PubMed - in process]

Prediction of neurocognition in youth from resting state fMRI.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 22:16
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Prediction of neurocognition in youth from resting state fMRI.

Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 19;:

Authors: Sripada C, Rutherford S, Angstadt M, Thompson WK, Luciana M, Weigard A, Hyde LH, Heitzeg M

Abstract
Difficulties with higher-order cognitive functions in youth are a potentially important vulnerability factor for the emergence of problematic behaviors and a range of psychopathologies. This study examined 2013 9-10 year olds in the first data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development 21-site consortium study in order to identify resting state functional connectivity patterns that predict individual-differences in three domains of higher-order cognitive functions: General Ability, Speed/Flexibility, and Learning/Memory. For General Ability scores in particular, we observed consistent cross-site generalizability, with statistically significant predictions in 14 out of 15 held-out sites. These results survived several tests for robustness including replication in split-half analysis and in a low head motion subsample. We additionally found that connectivity patterns involving task control networks and default mode network were prominently implicated in predicting differences in General Ability across participants. These findings demonstrate that resting state connectivity can be leveraged to produce generalizable markers of neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, they highlight the importance of task control-default mode network interconnections as a major locus of individual differences in cognitive functioning in early adolescence.

PMID: 31427753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]