Most recent paper

Inflammation Disrupts Cognitive Integrity via Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain Coupling Brain Networks in Alzheimer's Disease

Sun, 07/24/2022 - 18:00

J Alzheimers Dis. 2022 Jul 20. doi: 10.3233/JAD-220475. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Background: Plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a recognized biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and inflammation. Intrinsically organized default mode network core subsystem and frontoparietal network (FPN) and their interactions support complex cognitive function. The present study investigated the inflammatory effect on cognitive integrity via plasma NFL coupling internetwork interactions in AD.

OBJECTIVE: Objective: This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammation-related plasma NFL could affect the interactions of the core subsystem and FPN, which leads to the aggravation of the clinical symptoms of AD-spectrum patients.

OBJECTIVE: Methods: A total of 112 AD-spectrum participants underwent complete resting-state fMRI, neuropsychological tests, and plasma NFL at baseline (n = 112) and after approximately 17 months of follow-up (n = 112). The specific intersystem changes in the core subsystem and FPN were calculated and compared across groups. Then, the classifications of different AD-spectrum groups were analyzed using the association of plasma NFL and the changed intersystem interacting regions. Finally, mediation analysis was applied to investigate the significance of plasma NFL coupling networks on cognitive impairments in these subjects.

OBJECTIVE: Results: Discrimination of disease-related interactions of the core subsystem and FPN was found in AD-spectrum patients, which was the neural circuit fundamental to plasma NFL disrupting cognitive integrity. Furthermore, the clinical significance of plasma NFL coupling networks on AD identification and monitoring cognitive impairments were revealed in these subjects.

CONCLUSION: The characteristic change in inflammation-related plasma NFL coupled with brain internetwork interactions could be used as a potential observation indicator in the progression of AD patients.

PMID:35871350 | DOI:10.3233/JAD-220475

Identifying neuroimaging biomarkers for psychogenic erectile dysfunction by fusing multi-level brain information: a resting-state fMRI study

Sat, 07/23/2022 - 18:00

Andrology. 2022 Jul 23. doi: 10.1111/andr.13238. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients who are under their 40s in China consist of a major component of erectile dysfunction. Existing neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that pED is a functional disorder with aberrant neural representations on the local level, the regional level, and the global level respectively. Therefore, it is reasonable to incorporate brain information from all these levels simultaneously into consideration when identifying neuroimaging biomarkers for pED. However, no such endeavors have been made in previous studies to fully disclose the central mechanism of pED.

METHOD: To incorporate multi-level brain features to fully explore the neural representation of pED, a novel machine learning framework was proposed in the current study. Specifically, we used amplitude of low frequency fluctuation, regional homogeneity, and degree centrality as indices for local, regional, and global brain activity respectively. A fully data-driven method, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) recursive feature elimination analyses, was used to investigate discriminative brain map between 48 pED patients and 39 healthy control subjects for resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data.

RESULTS: By fusing multi-level brain features, our method led to a superb classification accuracy of 95.12% between two groups. Interestingly, the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left precuneus showed abnormal representations at different levels simultaneously in pED patients, which also explicated highest discriminative power between groups. Moreover, the right insular, the left fusiform gyrus, the right inferior temporal gyrus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the right precentral gyrus, the bilateral 0parahippocampal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus were discriminative for pED. Also, correlation analysis explicated that several core brain regions were associated with the clinical manifestations in pED patients.

CONCLUSION: This is one of the first study investigating brain alterations on different levels simultaneously in pED patients. Our results suggested that pED involves multi-level aberrant brain representations in multi-dimensional neurobehavioral components, which closely interrelated with cognitive and psychosocial factors, i.e., attention, appraisal, emotion and sensorimotor. Our findings are likely to help foster new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of pED and the aberrant brain regions may serve as potential therapeutic targets for targeted therapy for brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:35869867 | DOI:10.1111/andr.13238

Contrasting Frontoparietal Network Connectivity in Antipsychotic Medication-Naive First-Episode Psychosis Patients Who Do and Do Not Display Features of the Deficit Syndrome

Sat, 07/23/2022 - 18:00

Schizophr Bull. 2022 Jul 23:sbac081. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbac081. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The deficit syndrome is a clinical subtype of schizophrenia that is characterized by enduring negative symptoms. Several lines of evidence point to frontoparietal involvement, but the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and its subsystems (FPCNA and FPCNB) proposed by Yeo et al. have not been systematically characterized at rest in patients with the deficit syndrome.

METHODS: We used resting-state fMRI to investigate the FPCN and its subnetworks in 72 healthy controls and 65 antipsychotic medication-naive, first-episode psychosis patients (22 displayed deficit syndrome features, 43 did not). To assess whole-brain FPCN connectivity, we used the right posterior parietal cortex as the seed region. We then performed region of interest analyses in FPCN subsystems.

RESULTS: We found that patterns of FPCN dysconnectivity to the whole brain differed in patients who displayed deficit syndrome features compared with those who did not. Examining the FPCN on a more granular level revealed reduced within-FPCN(A) connectivity only in patients displaying deficit features. FPCNB connectivity did not differ between patient groups.

DISCUSSION: Here, we describe a neurobiological signature of aberrant FPCN connectivity in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode patients who display clinical features of the deficit syndrome. Importantly, frontoparietal subnetwork connectivity differentiated subgroups, where the FPCNA is selectively involved in patients with deficit features. Our findings add to the growing body of literature supporting a neurobiological distinction between two clinical subtypes of schizophrenia, which has the potential to be leveraged for patient stratification in clinical trials and the development of novel treatments.

PMID:35869578 | DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbac081

Altered neural flexibility in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 18:00

Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Jul 22. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01706-4. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, and is often characterized by altered executive functioning. Executive function has been found to be supported by flexibility in dynamic brain reconfiguration. Thus, we applied multilayer community detection to resting-state fMRI data in 180 children with ADHD and 180 typically developing children (TDC) to identify alterations in dynamic brain reconfiguration in children with ADHD. We specifically evaluated MR derived neural flexibility, which is thought to underlie cognitive flexibility, or the ability to selectively switch between mental processes. Significantly decreased neural flexibility was observed in the ADHD group at both the whole brain (raw p = 0.0005) and sub-network levels (p < 0.05, FDR corrected), particularly for the default mode network, attention-related networks, executive function-related networks, and primary networks. Furthermore, the subjects with ADHD who received medication exhibited significantly increased neural flexibility (p = 0.025, FDR corrected) when compared to subjects with ADHD who were medication naïve, and their neural flexibility was not statistically different from the TDC group (p = 0.74, FDR corrected). Finally, regional neural flexibility was capable of differentiating ADHD from TDC (Accuracy: 77% for tenfold cross-validation, 74.46% for independent test) and of predicting ADHD severity using clinical measures of symptom severity (R2: 0.2794 for tenfold cross-validation, 0.156 for independent test). In conclusion, the present study found that neural flexibility is altered in children with ADHD and demonstrated the potential clinical utility of neural flexibility to identify children with ADHD, as well as to monitor treatment responses and disease severity.

PMID:35869272 | DOI:10.1038/s41380-022-01706-4

Abnormalities in the Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation and Functional Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease With Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 18:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2022 Jul 5;14:826175. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.826175. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most important non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and its neuropathologic basis is still unclear.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the changes of neuronal activity in PD patients with EDS (PD-EDS) in the resting state.

METHODS: Forty-three PD patients were recruited and divided into the PD-EDS group (n = 21) and PD-NEDS group (PD patients without excessive daytime sleepiness, n = 22) according to the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) scores. Patients in both groups received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The differences in fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) between the two groups, correlations between fALFF and ESS, and functional connection (FC) between the brain regions with different fALFF values and the whole brain were analyzed.

RESULTS: PD-EDS patients exhibited a decreased fALFF in the Cingulum-Ant-R, but an increased fALFF in the Putamen-R and Thalamus-L when compared with PD-NEDS patients; an increased functional connectivity between these three seed regions with different fALFF values and the right medial frontal gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left insular, and right precuneus was observed (p < 0.05), but a deceased functional connectivity between these three seed regions and the right cerebellum anterior lobe/right brainstem, right middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, right medial cingulate gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus was observed (p < 0.05). The value of fALFF was negatively correlated with the ESS score in the Cingulum-Ant-R, but positively correlated with the ESS score in the Putamen-R and Thalamus-L.

CONCLUSIONS: EDS in PD patients may be associated with changes in brain neuron activity and functional connectivity.

PMID:35865749 | PMC:PMC9294344 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2022.826175

Reduction of Interhemispheric Homotopic Connectivity in Cognitive and Visual Information Processing Pathways in Patients With Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 18:00

Front Hum Neurosci. 2022 Jun 30;16:882114. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.882114. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a vision threatening autoimmune and inflammatory orbital disease, and has been reported to be associated with a wide range of structural and functional abnormalities of bilateral hemispheres. However, whether the interhemisphere functional connectivity (FC) of TAO patients is altered still remain unclear. A new technique called voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) combined with support vector machine (SVM) method was used in the present study to explore interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity alterations in patients with TAO.

METHODS: A total of 21 TAO patients (14 males and 7 females) and 21 wellmatched healthy controls (HCs, 14 males and 7 females), respectively, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning in the resting state. We evaluated alterations in the resting state functional connectivity between hemispheres by applying VMHC method and then selected these abnormal brain regions as seed areas for subsequent study using FC method. Furthermore, the observed changes of regions in the VMHC analysis were chosen as classification features to differentiate patients with TAO from HCs through support vector machine (SVM) method.

RESULTS: The results showed that compared with HCs, TAO patients showed significantly lower VMHC values in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine, middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus and angular. Moreover, significantly decreased FC values were found between the right postcentral gyrus/lingual gyrus/calcarine and left lingual gyrus/cuneus/superior occipital gyrus, left postcentral gyrus/lingual gyrus/calcarine and right lingual gyrus/ middle temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum-8/lingual gyrus/middle occipital gyrus/supplementary motor area, left middle temporal gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus/angular and left middle temporal pole (voxel-level p < 0.01, Gaussian random field correction, cluster-level p < 0.05). The SVM classification model achieved good performance in differentiating TAO patients from HCs (total accuracy: 73.81%; area under the curve: 0.79).

CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the altered interhemisphere interaction and integration of information involved in cognitive and visual information processing pathways including the postcentral gyrus, cuneus, cerebellum, angular, widespread visual cortex and temporal cortex in patients with TAO relative to HC group. VMHC variability had potential value for accurately and specifically distinguishing patients with TAO from HCs. The new findings may provide novel insights into the neurological mechanisms underlying visual and cognitive disorders in patients with TAO.

PMID:35865354 | PMC:PMC9295451 | DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2022.882114

Dataset of brain functional connectome and its maturation in adolescents

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 18:00

Data Brief. 2022 Jul 8;43:108454. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2022.108454. eCollection 2022 Aug.

ABSTRACT

We provided the dataset of brain connectome matrices, their similarities measures to self and others longitudinally, and Kessler's psychological distress scales (K10) including the response to each question. The dataset can be used to replicate the results of the manuscript titled "A longitudinal study of functional connectome uniqueness and its association with psychological distress in adolescence". The functional connectome (whole-brain and 13 networks) matrices were calculated from the resting-state functional MRIs (rs-fMRIs). We collected rs-fMRI and Kessler's psychological distress scale (K10) in 77 adolescents longitudinally up to 9 times from 12 years of age every four months. After removal of data with excessive motion, 262 functional connectome matrices were provided with this paper. The 300 regions of interest (ROIs) were defined using the Greene lab brain atlas. The functional connectome matrices were calculated as correlations between time series from any pair of ROIs extracted from pre-processed fMRIs. This dataset could be potentially used to1.Understand developmental changes in the functional brain connectivity,2.As a normal control database of functional connectome matrices,3.Develop and validate connectome and network-related analysing methods.

PMID:35864878 | PMC:PMC9294043 | DOI:10.1016/j.dib.2022.108454

Altered Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations and Degree Centrality in Patients with Acute Subjective Tinnitus: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 18:00

J Integr Neurosci. 2022 Jun 21;21(4):116. doi: 10.31083/j.jin2104116.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The difference in spontaneous brain activity between acute subjective tinnitus patients (with or without hearing loss) and control participants was explored using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and degree centrality methods through resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The study aimed to provide an objective basis for clinical diagnosis and pathogenesis of patients with acute subjective tinnitus.

METHODS: Fourteen acute subjective tinnitus (AST) patients with hearing loss (AST-HL), 6 AST patients with no hearing loss (AST-NHL), and 14 healthy controls (HCs) with age, sex, and education status matched were recruited for this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations were performed in a resting state and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and degree centrality (DC) values of each group were acquired. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ALFF and DC values of different brain areas of the participants (AST-HL and AST-NHL were compared with HCs, but AST-HL and AST-NHL were not).

RESULTS: Patients with acute subjective tinnitus and hearing loss showed a significantly increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation values in the left middle temporal gyrus and bilateral frontal gyrus/marginal lobe/cingulate gyrus but a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations values in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus/anterior cerebellar lobe in comparison with healthy controls. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation values of patients with acute subjective tinnitus and hearing loss in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum, bilateral temporal gyrus, bilateral lenticular nucleus, bilateral frontal gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus, were higher, but were significantly lower in the bilateral anterior lobe of cerebellum/superior temporal gyrus and left posterior cerebellar lobe as compared with those of healthy controls. Degree centrality values in the healthy controls group were increased in the right superior marginal gyrus and decreased in the right thalamus in patients with acute subjective tinnitus and hearing loss, while patients with acute subjective tinnitus with no hearing loss presented significantly higher degree centrality values in the left frontal lobe and lower degree centrality values in the left center rear return.

CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and values exist in various brain regions, indicating abnormal spontaneous brain activity in both acute subjective tinnitus and hearing loss and acute subjective tinnitus no hearing loss patients. The pathogenesis of acute subjective tinnitus may be related to abnormalities in both the auditory cortex and nonauditory cortex. These findings provide more evidence to help clarify the neuronal symptoms of acute subjective tinnitus patients.

PMID:35864767 | DOI:10.31083/j.jin2104116

Hippocampus-based static functional connectivity mapping within white matter in mild cognitive impairment

Thu, 07/21/2022 - 18:00

Brain Struct Funct. 2022 Jul 22. doi: 10.1007/s00429-022-02521-x. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is clinically characterized by memory loss and cognitive impairment closely associated with the hippocampal atrophy. Accumulating studies have confirmed the presence of neural signal changes within white matter (WM) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it remains unclear how abnormal hippocampus activity affects the WM regions in MCI. The current study employs 43 MCI, 71 very MCI (VMCI) and 87 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) from the public OASIS-3 dataset. Using the left and right hippocampus as seed points, we obtained the whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) maps for each subject. We then perform one-way ANOVA analysis to investigate the abnormal FC regions among HCs, VMCI, and MCI. We further performed probabilistic tracking to estimate whether the abnormal FC correspond to structural connectivity disruptions. Compared to HCs, MCI and VMCI groups exhibited reduced FC in the right middle temporal gyrus within gray matter, and right temporal pole, right inferior frontal gyrus within white matter. Specific dysconnectivity is shown in the cerebellum Crus II, left inferior temporal gyrus within gray matter, and right frontal gyrus within white matter. In addition, the fiber bundles connecting the left hippocampus and right temporal pole within white matter show abnormally increased mean diffusivity in MCI. The current study proposes a new functional imaging direction for exploring the mechanism of memory decline and pathophysiological mechanisms in different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

PMID:35864361 | DOI:10.1007/s00429-022-02521-x

Cognitive decline is associated with frequency-specific resting state functional changes in normal aging

Thu, 07/21/2022 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2022 Jul 21. doi: 10.1007/s11682-022-00682-1. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Resting state low-frequency brain activity may aid in our understanding of the mechanisms of aging-related cognitive decline. Our purpose was to explore the characteristics of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in different frequency bands of fMRI to better understand cognitive aging. Thirty-seven cognitively normal older individuals underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and MRI scans at baseline and four years later. ALFF from five different frequency bands (typical band, slow-5, slow-4, slow-3, and slow-2) were calculated and analyzed. A two-way ANOVA was used to explore the interaction effects in voxel-wise whole brain ALFF of the time and frequency bands. Paired-sample t-test was used to explore within-group changes over four years. Partial correlation analysis was performed to assess associations between the altered ALFF and cognitive function. Significant interaction effects of time × frequency were distributed over inferior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, right rolandic operculum, left thalamus, and right putamen. Significant ALFF reductions in all five frequency bands were mainly found in the right hemisphere and the posterior cerebellum; whereas localization of the significantly increased ALFF were mainly found in the cerebellum at typical band, slow-5 and slow-4 bands, and left hemisphere and the cerebellum at slow-3, slow-2 bands. In addition, ALFF changes showed frequency-specific correlations with changes in cognition. These results suggest that changes of local brain activity in cognitively normal aging should be investigated in multiple frequency bands. The association between ALFF changes and cognitive function can potentially aid better understanding of the mechanisms underlying normal cognitive aging.

PMID:35864341 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-022-00682-1

Interpreting models interpreting brain dynamics

Thu, 07/21/2022 - 18:00

Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 21;12(1):12023. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-15539-2.

ABSTRACT

Brain dynamics are highly complex and yet hold the key to understanding brain function and dysfunction. The dynamics captured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are noisy, high-dimensional, and not readily interpretable. The typical approach of reducing this data to low-dimensional features and focusing on the most predictive features comes with strong assumptions and can miss essential aspects of the underlying dynamics. In contrast, introspection of discriminatively trained deep learning models may uncover disorder-relevant elements of the signal at the level of individual time points and spatial locations. Yet, the difficulty of reliable training on high-dimensional low sample size datasets and the unclear relevance of the resulting predictive markers prevent the widespread use of deep learning in functional neuroimaging. In this work, we introduce a deep learning framework to learn from high-dimensional dynamical data while maintaining stable, ecologically valid interpretations. Results successfully demonstrate that the proposed framework enables learning the dynamics of resting-state fMRI directly from small data and capturing compact, stable interpretations of features predictive of function and dysfunction.

PMID:35864279 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-15539-2

Identification of Autism spectrum disorder based on a novel feature selection method and Variational Autoencoder

Thu, 07/21/2022 - 18:00

Comput Biol Med. 2022 Jul 15;148:105854. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105854. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The development of noninvasive brain imaging such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and its combination with AI algorithm provides a promising solution for the early diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the performance of the current ASD classification based on rs-fMRI still needs to be improved. This paper introduces a classification framework to aid ASD diagnosis based on rs-fMRI. In the framework, we proposed a novel filter feature selection method based on the difference between step distribution curves (DSDC) to select remarkable functional connectivities (FCs) and utilized a multilayer perceptron (MLP) which was pretrained by a simplified Variational Autoencoder (VAE) for classification. We also designed a pipeline consisting of a normalization procedure and a modified hyperbolic tangent (tanh) activation function to replace the classical tanh function, further improving the model accuracy. Our model was evaluated by 10 times 10-fold cross-validation and achieved an average accuracy of 78.12%, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods reported on the same dataset. Given the importance of sensitivity and specificity in disease diagnosis, two constraints were designed in our model which can improve the model's sensitivity and specificity by up to 9.32% and 10.21%, respectively. The added constraints allow our model to handle different application scenarios and can be used broadly.

PMID:35863246 | DOI:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105854

Functional Brain Networks in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Thu, 07/21/2022 - 18:00

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jul 4;13:896388. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.896388. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the functional brain network characteristics of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through functional connectivity (FC) calculations using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theory analysis to better understand the pathogenesis of ASD and provide imaging evidence for the early assessment of this condition.

METHODS: A prospective study of preschool children including 32 with ASD (ASD group) and 22 healthy controls (HC)group was conducted in which all subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans, and then the differences in FC between the two groups was calculated, followed by graph-theoretic analysis to obtain the FC properties of the network.

RESULTS: In the calculation of FC, compared with the children in the HC group, significant increases or decreases in subnetwork connectivity was found in the ASD group. There were 25 groups of subnetworks with enhanced FC, of which the medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate gyrus and angular gyrus were all important components of the default mode network (DMN). There were 11 groups of subnetworks with weakened FC, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and perirhinal cortex, with the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus predominating. In the network properties determined by graph theory, the clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the functional network was increased in the ASD group; specifically, compared with those in the HC group, nodes in the left subinsular frontal gyrus and the right middle temporal gyrus had increased efficiency, and nodes in the left perisylvian cortex, the left lingual gyrus, and the right hippocampus had decreased efficiency.

CONCLUSION: Alterations in functional brain networks are evident in preschool children with ASD and can be detected with sleep rs-fMRI, which is important for understanding the pathogenesis of ASD and assessing this condition early.

PMID:35859600 | PMC:PMC9289162 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.896388

Centrality and interhemispheric coordination are related to different clinical/behavioral factors in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study

Wed, 07/20/2022 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2022 Jul 21. doi: 10.1007/s11682-022-00708-8. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Eigenvector-Centrality (EC) has shown promising results in the field of Psychiatry, with early results also pertaining to ADHD. Parallel efforts have focused on the description of aberrant interhemispheric coordination in ADHD, as measured by Voxel-Mirrored-Homotopic-Connectivity (VMHC), with early evidence of altered Resting-State fMRI. A sample was collected from the ADHD200-NYU initiative: 86 neurotypicals and 89 participants with ADHD between 7 and 18 years old were included after quality control for motion. After preprocessing, voxel-wise EC and VMHC values between diagnostic groups were compared, and network-level values from 15 functional networks extracted. Age, ADHD severity (Connor's Parent Rating-Scale), IQ (Wechsler-Abbreviated-Scale), and right-hand dominance were correlated with EC/VMHC values in the whole sample and within groups, both at the voxel-wise and network-level. Motion was controlled by censoring time-points with Framewise-Displacement > 0.5 mm, as well as controlling for group differences in mean Framewise-Displacement values. EC was significantly higher in ADHD compared to neurotypicals in the left inferior Frontal lobe, Lingual gyri, Peri-Calcarine cortex, superior and middle Occipital lobes, right inferior Occipital lobe, right middle Temporal gyrus, Fusiform gyri, bilateral Cuneus, right Precuneus, and Cerebellum (FDR-corrected-p = 0.05). No differences were observed between groups in voxel-wise VMHC. EC was positively correlated with ADHD severity scores at the network level (at p-value < 0.01, Inattentive: Cerebellum rho = 0.273; Hyper/Impulsive: High-Visual Network rho = 0.242, Cerebellum rho = 0.273; Global Index Severity: High-Visual Network rho = 0.241, Cerebellum rho = 0.293). No differences were observed between groups for motion (p = 0.443). While EC was more related to ADHD psychopathology, VMHC was consistently and negatively correlated with age across all networks.

PMID:35859076 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-022-00708-8

Brain microstructural alterations in the left precuneus mediate the association between KIBRA polymorphism and working memory in healthy adults: a diffusion kurtosis imaging study

Tue, 07/19/2022 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2022 Jul 20. doi: 10.1007/s11682-022-00703-z. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA) rs17070145 is associated with working memory function and cognitive processes. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of KIBRA polymorphism on brain microstructure and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 163 young adults. We also investigated that whether the imaging alterations mediated the association between KIBRA gene and working memory performance. Voxel-based analysis of DKI data showed that KIBRA C-allele carriers exhibited increased axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) as well as decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), mean kurtosis (MK) and radial kurtosis (RK) compared with KIBRA TT homozygotes, primarily involving the prefrontal lobe, left precuneus and the left superior parietal white matter. Meanwhile, KIBRA C-allele carriers exhibited decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the left precuneus compared to KIBRA TT homozygotes. Mediation analysis revealed that the DKI metrics (MK and RK) of the left precuneus mediated the effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on working memory performance. Moreover, the MK and RK in the left precuneus were positively correlated with ALFF in the same brain region. These findings suggest that abnormal DKI parameters may provide a gene-brain-behavior pathway in which KIBRA rs17070145 affects working memory by modulating brain microstructure in the left precuneus. This illustrates that DKI may provide additional biological information and reveal new insights into the neural mechanisms of the KIBRA polymorphism.

PMID:35854194 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-022-00703-z

A systematic review on resting state functional connectivity in patients with neurodegenerative disease and hallucinations

Tue, 07/19/2022 - 18:00

Neuroimage Clin. 2022 Jul 13;35:103112. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103112. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Hallucinations are a complex and multidimensional phenomenon which can differ based on the involved pathology, typology and sensory modality. Hallucinations are common in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Recent sparse evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies has identified altered functional connectivity in those patients within several brain networks, such as the default mode, attentional and sensory ones, without, however, providing an organized picture of the mechanisms involved. This systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, aims at critically analyzing the current literature on the brain networks associated with the phenomenon of hallucinations in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Ten rs-fMRI studies fulfilled our selection criteria. All these studies focused on synucleinopathies, and most of them focused on visual hallucinations and were characterized by a heterogeneous methodology. Thus, instead of offering a definite picture of the mechanisms underlying hallucinations in neurodegeneration, this systematic review encourages further research especially concerning tauopathies. Notwithstanding, the findings overall suggest a disruption in the top-down (associated with memory intrusion and difficulty of inhibition) and in the bottom-up processes (associated with the sensory areas involved in the hallucinations). Further investigations are needed in order to disentangle the brain mechanisms involved in hallucinations and to overcome possible limitations characterizing the current literature.

PMID:35853345 | DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103112

Reproducibility and repeatability of magnetic resonance imaging in dementia

Tue, 07/19/2022 - 18:00

Phys Med. 2022 Jul 15;101:8-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2022.06.012. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individualised predictive models of cognitive decline require disease-monitoring markers that are repeatable. For wide-spread adoption, such markers also need to be reproducible at different locations. This study assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of MRI markers derived from a dementia protocol.

METHODS: Six participants were scanned at three different sites with a 3T MRI scanner. The protocol employed: T1-weighted (T1w) imaging, resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI), arterial spin labelling (ASL), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted (T2w) imaging, and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Participants were scanned repeatedly, up to six times over a maximum period of five years. One participant was also scanned a further three times on sequential days on one scanner. Fifteen derived metrics were computed from the seven different modalities.

RESULTS: Reproducibility (coefficient of variation; CoV, across sites) was best for T1w derived grey matter, white matter and hippocampal volume (CoV < 1.5%), compared to rsfMRI and SWI derived metrics (CoV, 19% and 21%). For a given metric, long-term repeatability (CoV across time) was comparable to reproducibility, with short-term repeatability considerably better.

CONCLUSIONS: Reproducibility and repeatability were assessed for a suite of markers calculated from a dementia MRI protocol. In general, structural markers were less variable than functional MRI markers. Variability over time on the same scanner was comparable to variability measured across different scanners. Overall, the results support the viability of multi-site longitudinal studies for monitoring cognitive decline.

PMID:35849909 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejmp.2022.06.012

Corrigendum: Characteristics of the Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in Ocular Hypertension Patients: A Resting-State fMRI Study

Mon, 07/18/2022 - 18:00

Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jun 29;9:958937. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.958937. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.687420.].

PMID:35847792 | PMC:PMC9277859 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2022.958937

Brain Network Alterations in Rectal Cancer Survivors With Depression Tendency: Evaluation With Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Mon, 07/18/2022 - 18:00

Front Neurol. 2022 Jun 29;13:791298. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.791298. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Surgery and chemotherapy may increase depression tendency in patients with rectal cancer (RC). Nevertheless, few comprehensive studies are conducted on alterations of brain network induced by depression tendency in patients with RC. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected from 42 patients with RC with surgery and chemotherapy and 38 healthy controls (HCs). Functional network (FN) was constructed from extracting average time courses in brain regions, and structural network (SN) was established by deterministic tractography. Graph theoretical analysis was used to calculate network properties. Networks resilient of two networks were assessed. Clinical correlation analysis was explored between altered network parameters and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score. This study revealed impaired FN and SN at both local and global levels and changed nodal efficiency and abnormal small-worldness property in patients with RC. On the whole, all FNs are more robust than SN. Moreover, compared with HC, patients with RC show less robustness in both networks. Regions with decreased nodal efficiency were associated with HAMD score. These cognitive dysfunctions are mainly attributable to depression-related brain functional and structural network alterations. Brain network reorganization is to prevent patients with RC from more serious depression after surgery and chemotherapy.

PMID:35847225 | PMC:PMC9277124 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2022.791298

Abnormal Dynamics of Functional Connectivity Density Associated With Chronic Neck Pain

Mon, 07/18/2022 - 18:00

Front Mol Neurosci. 2022 Jun 29;15:880228. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2022.880228. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic neck pain (CNP) is highly prevalent and complicated, associated with limited movement, and accompanied by shoulder pain and other clinical manifestations such as dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. Brain structural and functional abnormalities often occur in patients with CNP. However, knowledge of the brain's functional organization and temporal dynamics in CNP patients is limited. Dynamic functional connectivity density (dFCD) can reflect the ability of brain areas or voxels to integrate information, and could become neuroimaging markers for objectively reflecting pain to a certain extent. Therefore, this study compared the dFCD between CNP patients and healthy controls (HCs) and investigated potential associations of the abnormal density variability in dynamic functional connectivity with pain characteristics in CNP patients. Methods: Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for 89 CNP patients and 57 HCs. After preprocessing resting-state fMRI images by the Data Processing and Analysis of Brain Imaging toolbox, the sliding window method was applied to investigate dFCD changes in CNP patients and HCs using the DynamicBC toolbox. Then we quantified dFCD variability using their standard deviation. Based on the pain-associated factors collected from the case report form of CNP patients, the mean dFCD variability values of each dFCD from region of interest were extracted to calculate Pearson's correlation coefficient to study the potential correlation between dFCD abnormal variability and pain. Results: Compared with HCs, the dFCD values of the anterior cingulate cortex, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum were statistically different in patients with CNP. Subsequent correlation analysis showed that the variable dFCD in the related brain region was correlative with the course of the disease and clinical symptoms, such as pain and depression, in patients with CNP. Conclusion: Dynamic functional alterations were observed in the brain regions of CNP patients, and the dFCD of these brain regions could become neuroimaging markers for objectively reflecting pain to a certain extent. This suggests that chronic pain may cause changes in pain processing and emotional feedback and highlights the link between dynamic neural communication in brain regions and disease conditions, deepening our understanding of chronic pain diseases, and guiding clinical practice.

PMID:35845606 | PMC:PMC9277509 | DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2022.880228