Most recent paper

Mapping the functional brain state of a world champion freediver in static dry apnea

Sun, 08/22/2021 - 18:00

Brain Struct Funct. 2021 Aug 22. doi: 10.1007/s00429-021-02361-1. Online ahead of print.


Voluntary apnea showcases extreme human adaptability in trained individuals like professional free divers. We evaluated the psychological and physiological adaptation and the functional cerebral changes using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to 6.5 min of dry static apnea performed by a world champion free diver. Compared to resting state at baseline, breath holding was characterized by increased EEG power and functional connectivity in the alpha band, along with decreased delta band connectivity. fMRI connectivity was increased within the default mode network (DMN) and visual areas but decreased in pre- and postcentral cortices. While these changes occurred in regions overlapping with cerebral signatures of several meditation practices, they also display some unique features that suggest an altered somatosensory integration. As suggested by self-reports, these findings could reflect the ability of elite free divers to create a state of sensory dissociation when performing prolonged apnea.

PMID:34420066 | DOI:10.1007/s00429-021-02361-1

Similar but distinct - Effects of different socioeconomic indicators on resting state functional connectivity: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Sun, 08/22/2021 - 18:00

Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2021 Aug 14;51:101005. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101005. Online ahead of print.


Early socioeconomic status (SES) has consistently been associated with child health and cognitive outcomes, in addition to alterations in brain function and connectivity. The goal of the present study was to probe the effects of different facets of SES (parent education, income, and neighborhood disadvantage), that likely represent varying aspects of the environment, on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). We investigated this question in a large sample of 9475 children (aged 9-10 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Specifically, we analyzed the association between household SES (parent education, income-to-needs ratio) and neighborhood disadvantage, and system-level rsFC using within-sample split-half replication. We then tested whether the associations were unique to each SES measure, and whether household SES and neighborhood disadvantage had interactive effects on rsFC. SES measures had both common and distinct effects on rsFC, with sensory-motor systems (e.g., sensorimotor network) and cognitive networks (e.g., front-parietal network) particularly implicated. Further, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and sensorimotor network connectivity was less pronounced in the presence of high income-to-needs. Findings demonstrate that different facets of SES have distinct and interacting effects on rsFC, highlighting the importance of considering different indicators when studying the effects of SES on the brain.

PMID:34419766 | DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101005

Insula activity in resting-state differentiates bipolar from unipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sat, 08/21/2021 - 18:00

Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 20;11(1):16930. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-96319-2.


Symptomatic overlap of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Mania in medical history remains the only reliable distinguishing marker which is problematic given that episodes of depression compared to episodes of mania are more frequent and predominantly present at the beginning of BD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive, task-free, and well-tolerated method that may provide diagnostic markers acquired from spontaneous neural activity. Previous rs-fMRI studies focused on differentiating BD from MDD depression were inconsistent in their findings due to low sample power, heterogeneity of compared samples, and diversity of analytical methods. This meta-analysis investigated resting-state activity differences in BD and MDD depression using activation likelihood estimation. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched for whole-brain rs-fMRI studies which compared MDD and BD currently depressed patients between Jan 2000 and August 2020. Ten studies were included, representing 234 BD and 296 MDD patients. The meta-analysis found increased activity in the left insula and adjacent area in MDD compared to BD. The finding suggests that the insula is involved in neural activity patterns during resting-state that can be potentially used as a biomarker differentiating both disorders.

PMID:34417487 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-96319-2

Baseline Functional Connectivity in Resting State Networks Associated with Depression and Remission Status after 16 Weeks of Pharmacotherapy: A CAN-BIND Report

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Aug 20:bhab286. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab286. Online ahead of print.


Understanding the neural underpinnings of major depressive disorder (MDD) and its treatment could improve treatment outcomes. So far, findings are variable and large sample replications scarce. We aimed to replicate and extend altered functional connectivity associated with MDD and pharmacotherapy outcomes in a large, multisite sample. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 129 patients and 99 controls through the Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression. Symptoms were assessed with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Connectivity was measured as correlations between four seeds (anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and all other brain voxels. Partial least squares was used to compare connectivity prior to treatment between patients and controls, and between patients reaching remission (MADRS ≤ 10) early (within 8 weeks), late (within 16 weeks), or not at all. We replicated previous findings of altered connectivity in patients. In addition, baseline connectivity of the anterior/posterior cingulate and insula seeds differentiated patients with different treatment outcomes. The stability of these differences was established in the largest single-site subsample. Our replication and extension of altered connectivity highlighted previously reported and new differences between patients and controls, and revealed features that might predict remission prior to pharmacotherapy. Trial registration: NCT01655706.

PMID:34416758 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhab286

Electroacupuncture enhances resting-state functional connectivity between dorsal caudate and precuneus and decreases associated leptin levels in overweight/obese subjects

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Aug 20. doi: 10.1007/s11682-021-00519-3. Online ahead of print.


Electroacupuncture (EA) is a safe and effective method for treating obesity. However, how it modulates reward-related brain activity/functional connectivity and gut hormones remains unclear. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate EA induced changes in resting-state activity and RSFC in reward-related regions and its association with gut hormones in overweight/obese subjects who received real (n = 20) and Sham (n = 15) stimulation. Results showed reduced leptin levels was positively correlated with reduced body mass index (BMI) and negatively correlated with increased cognitive-control as measured with Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). Significant time effects on RSFC between dorsal caudate (DC) and precuneus were due to significant increased RSFC strength in both EA and Sham groups. In addition, increased RSFC of DC-precuneus was negatively correlated with reduced BMI and leptin levels in the EA group. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between increased DC-precuneus RSFC strength and reduced BMI was mediated by reduced leptin levels. These findings reflect the association between EA-induced brain reward-related RSFC and leptin levels, and decreased leptin levels mediated altered DC-precuneus RSFC strength and consequent weight-loss, suggesting the potential role of EA in reducing weight and appetite.

PMID:34415492 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-021-00519-3

Is resting-state functional connectivity altered in regular cannabis users? A systematic review of the literature

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2021 Aug 20. doi: 10.1007/s00213-021-05938-0. Online ahead of print.


RATIONALE: Regular cannabis use has been associated with brain functional alterations within frontal, temporal, and striatal pathways assessed during various cognitive tasks. Whether such alterations are consistently reported in the absence of overt task performance needs to be elucidated to uncover the core neurobiological mechanisms of regular cannabis use.

OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review findings from studies that examine spontaneous fluctuations of brain function using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in cannabis users versus controls, and the association between rsFC and cannabis use chronicity, mental health symptoms, and cognitive performance.

METHODS: We conducted a PROSPERO registered systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and searched eight databases.

RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included for review. Samples comprised 1396 participants aged 16 to 42 years, of which 737 were cannabis users and 659 were controls. Most studies found greater positive rsFC in cannabis users compared to controls between frontal-frontal, fronto-striatal, and fronto-temporal region pairings. The same region pairings were found to be preliminarily associated with varying measures of cannabis exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: The evidence to date shows that regular cannabis exposure is consistently associated with alteration of spontaneous changes in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent signal without any explicit cognitive input or output. These findings have implications for interpreting results from task-based fMRI studies of cannabis users, which may additionally tax overlapping networks. Future longitudinal rsFC fMRI studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the findings and their link to the chronicity of use, mental health, and cognitive performance.

PMID:34415377 | DOI:10.1007/s00213-021-05938-0

Comparison of functional dorsal attention network alterations in breast cancer survivors before and after chemotherapy

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Aug 20;100(33):e27018. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000027018.


Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer among women worldwide, and a high number of breast cancer patients are suffering from psychological and cognitive disorders. This cross-sectional study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and clinical neuropsychological tests to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms.We enrolled 32 breast cancer patients without chemotherapy (BC), 32 breast cancer patients within 6 to 12 months after the completion of chemotherapy (BC_CTx) and 46 healthy controls. Participants underwent neuropsychological tests and rs-fMRI with mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and mean regional homogeneity analyses. Between groups whole-brain voxel-wise rs-fMRI comparisons were calculated using two-sample t test. rs-fMRI and neuropsychological tests correlation analyses were calculated using multiple regression. Age and years of education were used as covariates. A false discovery rate-corrected P-value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant.We found significantly alteration of mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and mean regional homogeneity in the frontoparietal lobe and occipital lobe in the BC group compared with the other 2 groups, indicating alteration of functional dorsal attention network (DAN). Furthermore, we found the DAN alteration was correlated with neuropsychological impairment.The majority of potential underlying mechanisms of DAN alteration in BC patients may due to insufficient frontoparietal lobe neural activity to drive DAN and may be related to the effects of neuropsychological distress. Further longitudinal studies with comprehensive images and neuropsychological tests correlations are recommended.

PMID:34414995 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000027018

Ginkgo Biloba Extract Is Comparable With Donepezil in Improving Functional Recovery in Alzheimer's Disease: Results From a Multilevel Characterized Study Based on Clinical Features and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Front Pharmacol. 2021 Aug 3;12:721216. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.721216. eCollection 2021.


Background: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and donepezil have been reported to be effective in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nonetheless, how these drugs impact spontaneous brain activities and how they consequently improve functional recovery are currently unclear. Objectives: This study was to explore the efficacy of GBE vs. donepezil and their add-on efficacy on functional recovery and the adaption of spontaneous brain activities following pharmacologic treatment in patients with AD. Methods: Patients with AD were enrolled and assigned to the GBE group (n = 50), the donepezil group (n = 50), or the combined group (n = 50). Neuropsychological assessments, including minimum mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognition (ADAS-Cog), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), geriatric depression scale (GDS), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), and quality of life in Alzheimer's disease (QOL-AD), were conducted at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was collected to compare the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), percent amplitude of fluctuation (PerAF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) at baseline and 6 months. Results: No major significant differences were detected in all comparisons between groups across all follow-up time points. For intragroup comparison, MMSE and ADAS-Cog scores differed significantly across all follow-ups in three groups. The combined group showed significant improvement of GDS scores between baseline and 6 months (p = 0.007). The GBE group (p = 0.044) and donepezil group (p = 0.012) demonstrated significant improvement of NPI scores between baseline and 6 months. Significant correlations were observed between IADL and ALFF in the right gyrus rectus (p = 0.03) and in the left superior cerebellum gyrus (p = 0.01), between GDS and ALFF in the right middle temporal gyrus (p = 0.01), between NPI and PerAF in the left fusiform gyrus (p = 0.03), and between MMSE and ReHo in right superior frontal gyrus (p = 0.04). Conclusion: GBE was comparable with donepezil in the improvement of functional recovery in patients with AD while the combined application of GBE and donepezil seems unnecessary. GBE-mediated improvement of functional recovery was characterized by decreased ALFF values in the right gyrus rectus and decreased PerAF values in the left fusiform gyrus. These featured variations of imaging metrics in specific brain regions may serve as biomarkers in the monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy of GBE.

PMID:34413779 | PMC:PMC8369572 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.721216

Differentiation of Cerebellum-Type and Parkinson-Type of Multiple System Atrophy by Using Multimodal MRI Parameters

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Front Aging Neurosci. 2021 Aug 3;13:687649. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.687649. eCollection 2021.


Recent studies have demonstrated the structural and functional changes in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, little is known about the different parameter changes of the most vulnerable regions in different types of MSA. In this study, we collected resting-state structure, perfusion, and patients with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of cerebellum-type of MSA (MSA-c) and Parkinson-type of MSA (MSA-p). First, by simultaneously using voxel-based morphology (VBM), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), we analyzed the whole brain differences of structure, perfusion, and functional activation between patients with MSA-c and MSA-p. Second, we explored the relationships among structure, perfusion, function, and the clinical variables in patients with MSA. Finally, we extracted the MRI parameters of a specific region to separate the two groups and search for a sensitive imaging biomarker. As a result, compared with patients with MSA-p type, patients with MSA-c type showed decreased structure atrophy in several cerebella and vermis subregions, reduced perfusion in bilateral cerebellum_4_5 and vermis_4_5, and an decreased ALFF values in the right lingual gyrus (LG) and fusiform (FFG). Subsequent analyses revealed the close correlations among structure, perfusion, function, and clinical variables in both MSA-c and MSA-p. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of bilateral cerebellum_4_5/vermis_4_5 could differentiate the two groups at a relatively high accuracy, yielding the sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 79.2%, and the area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.936. These findings have important implications for understanding the underlying neurobiology of different types of MSA and added the new evidence for the disrupted rCBF, structure, and function of MSA, which may provide the potential biomarker for accurately detecting different types of patients with MSA and new ideas for the treatment of different types of MSA in the future.

PMID:34413766 | PMC:PMC8369927 | DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2021.687649

Estimated Regional White Matter Hyperintensity Burden, Resting State Functional Connectivity, and Cognitive Functions in Older Adults

Fri, 08/20/2021 - 18:00

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2021 Jul 29:S1064-7481(21)00410-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2021.07.015. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, including cognitive control and memory; however, the structural, and functional mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between estimated regional disruptions to white matter fiber tracts from WMH, resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), and cognitive functions in older adults.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Community.

PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-eight cognitively-healthy older adults.

MEASUREMENTS: Tasks of cognitive control and memory, structural MRI, and resting state fMRI. We estimated the disruption to white matter fiber tracts from WMH and its impact on gray matter regions in the cortical and subcortical frontoparietal network, default mode network, and ventral attention network by overlaying each subject's WMH mask on a normative tractogram dataset. We calculated RSFC between nodes in those same networks. We evaluated the interaction of regional WMH burden and RSFC in predicting cognitive control and memory.

RESULTS: The interaction of estimated regional WMH burden and RSFC in cortico-striatal regions of the default mode network and frontoparietal network was associated with delayed recall. Models predicting working memory, cognitive inhibition, and set-shifting were not significant.

CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the role of network-level structural and functional alterations in resting state networks that are related to WMH and impact memory in older adults.

PMID:34412936 | DOI:10.1016/j.jagp.2021.07.015

Static versus Functional PET: Making Sense of Metabolic Connectivity

Thu, 08/19/2021 - 18:00

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Aug 19:bhab271. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab271. Online ahead of print.


Recently, Jamadar et al. (2021, Metabolic and hemodynamic resting-state connectivity of the human brain: a high-temporal resolution simultaneous BOLD-fMRI and FDG-fPET multimodality study. Cereb Cortex. 31(6), 2855-2867) compared the patterns of brain connectivity or covariance as obtained from 3 neuroimaging measures: 1) functional connectivity estimated from temporal correlations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent signal, metabolic connectivity estimated, 2) from temporal correlations in 16-s frames of dynamic [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which they designate as functional FDG-PET (fPET), and 3) from intersubject correlations in static FDG-PET images (sPET). Here, we discuss a number of fundamental issues raised by the Jamadar study. These include the choice of terminology, the interpretation of cross-modal findings, the issue of group- to single-subject level inferences, and the meaning of metabolic connectivity as a biomarker. We applaud the methodological approach taken by the authors, but wish to present an alternative perspective on their findings. In particular, we argue that sPET and fPET can both provide valuable information about brain connectivity. Certainly, resolving this conundrum calls for further experimental and theoretical efforts to advance the developing framework of PET-based brain connectivity indices.

PMID:34411237 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhab271

Altered regional homogeneity in patients with ovarian cancer treated with chemotherapy: a resting state fMRI study

Thu, 08/19/2021 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1007/s11682-021-00525-5. Online ahead of print.


Many patients treated with chemotherapy for non-central nervous system (CNS) cancers experience cognitive dysfunction. However, few studies have investigated treatment-related neurotoxicity in women with ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to assess regional brain function in patients with ovarian cancer after first-line chemotherapy. Seventeen patients with ovarian cancer and seventeen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study. The patients were evaluated 1-4 months after completion of first line taxane/platinum chemotherapy. All participants underwent resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) indices were calculated. The results showed that patients had significantly decreased average ReHo values in the left middle frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, and right superior parietal lobule, compared to healthy controls. This is the first rsfMRI study showing ReHo alterations in frontal and parietal regions in patients with ovarian cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy. The findings are overall congruent with prior studies in non-CNS cancer populations and provide supporting evidence for the prevailing notion that frontal areas are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of chemotherapy.

PMID:34409561 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-021-00525-5

Altered Brain Functional Network Topology in Lung Cancer Patients After Chemotherapy

Thu, 08/19/2021 - 18:00

Front Neurol. 2021 Aug 2;12:710078. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2021.710078. eCollection 2021.


Purpose: This study aimed to explore the topological features of brain functional network in lung cancer patients before and after chemotherapy using graph theory. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 44 post-chemotherapy and 46 non-chemotherapy patients as well as 49 healthy controls (HCs). All groups were age- and gender-matched. Then, the topological features of brain functional network were assessed using graph theory analysis. Results: At the global level, compared with the HCs, both the non-chemotherapy group and the post-chemotherapy group showed significantly increased values in sigma (p < 0.05), gamma (p < 0.05), and local efficiency, E loc (p < 0.05). The post-chemotherapy group and the non-chemotherapy group did not differ significantly in the above-mentioned parameters. At the nodal level, when non-chemotherapy or post-chemotherapy patients were compared with the HCs, abnormal nodal centralities were mainly observed in widespread brain regions. However, when the post-chemotherapy group was compared with the non-chemotherapy group, significantly decreased nodal centralities were observed primarily in the prefrontal-subcortical regions. Conclusions: These results indicate that lung cancer and chemotherapy can disrupt the topological features of functional networks, and chemotherapy may cause a pattern of prefrontal-subcortical brain network abnormality. As far as we know, this is the first study to report that altered functional brain networks are related to lung cancer and chemotherapy.

PMID:34408724 | PMC:PMC8367296 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2021.710078

Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in Pediatric Focal Epilepsy

Thu, 08/19/2021 - 18:00

Front Neurol. 2021 Aug 2;12:670881. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2021.670881. eCollection 2021.


Objective: Whilst stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus has shown efficacy for reducing seizure frequency in adults, alterations in thalamic connectivity have not been explored in children. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the anterior thalamus has increased functional connectivity in children with focal epilepsy, and (b) this alteration in the connectome is a persistent effect of the disease rather than due to transient epileptiform activity. Methods: Data from 35 children (7-18 years) with focal, drug-resistant epilepsy and 20 healthy children (7-17 years) were analyzed. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whilst resting and were simultaneously monitored with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The fMRI timeseries were extracted for each Automated Anatomical Labeling brain region and thalamic subregion. Graph theory metrics [degree (DC) and eigenvector (EC) centrality] were used to summarize the connectivity profile of the ipsilateral thalamus, and its thalamic parcellations. The effect of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) captured on EEG was used to determine their effect on DC and EC. Results: DC was significantly higher in the anterior nucleus (p = 0.04) of the thalamus ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone in children with epilepsy compared to controls. On exploratory analyses, we similarly found a higher DC in the lateral dorsal nucleus (p = 0.02), but not any other thalamic subregion. No differences in EC measures were found between patients and controls. We did not find any significant difference in DC or EC in any thalamic subregion when comparing the results of children with epilepsy before, and after the removal of the effects of IEDs. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the anterior and lateral dorsal nuclei of the thalamus are more highly functionally connected in children with poorly controlled focal epilepsy. We did not detect a convincing change in thalamic connectivity caused by transient epileptiform activity, suggesting that it represents a persistent alteration to network dynamics.

PMID:34408719 | PMC:PMC8365837 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2021.670881

Different effects of the DRD4 genotype on intrinsic brain network connectivity strength in drug-naïve children with ADHD and healthy controls

Wed, 08/18/2021 - 18:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.1007/s11682-021-00521-9. Online ahead of print.


The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent studies have linked DRD4 to functional connectivity among specific brain regions. The current study aimed to compare the effects of the DRD4 genotype on functional integrity in drug-naïve ADHD children and healthy children. Resting-state functional MRI images were acquired from 49 children with ADHD and 37 healthy controls (HCs). We investigated the effects of the 2-repeat allele of DRD4 on brain network connectivity in both groups using a parameter called the degree of centrality (DC), which indexes local functional relationships across the entire brain connectome. A voxel-wise two-way ANCOVA was performed to examine the diagnosis-by-genotype interactions on DC maps. Significant diagnosis-by-genotype interactions with DC were found in the temporal lobe, including the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG) (GRF corrected at voxel level p < 0.001 and cluster level p < 0.05, two-tailed). With the further subdivision of the DC network according to anatomical distance, additional brain regions with significant interactions were found in the long-range DC network, including the left superior parietal gyrus (SPG) and right middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The post-hoc pairwise analysis found that altered network centrality related to DRD4 differed according to diagnostic status (p < 0.05). This genetic imaging study suggests that the DRD4 genotype regulates the functional integration of brain networks in children with ADHD and HCs differently. This may have important implications for our understanding of the role of DRD4 in altering functional connectivity in ADHD subjects.

PMID:34406637 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-021-00521-9

Neuroimaging in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Recent Advances

Wed, 08/18/2021 - 18:00

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.2214/AJR.21.26316. Online ahead of print.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition, leading to impaired attention and impulsive behaviors diagnosed in, but not limited to, children. ADHD can cause symptoms throughout life. This article summarizes structural (conventional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor imaging MRI) and functional [task-based functional MRI (fMRI), resting state fMRI, PET, and MR spectroscopy] brain findings in patients with ADHD. Consensus is lacking regarding altered anatomic or functional imaging findings of the brain in children with ADHD, likely because of the disorder's heterogeneity. Most anatomic studies report abnormalities in the frontal lobes, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum; decreased surface area in the left ventral frontal and right prefrontal cortex; thinner medial temporal lobes; and smaller caudate nuclei. Using fMRI, researchers have focused on the prefrontal and temporal regions, reflecting perception-action mapping alterations. Artificial intelligence models evaluating brain anatomy have highlighted changes in cortical thickness and shape of the inferior frontal cortex, bilateral sensorimotor cortex, left temporal lobe, and insula. Early intervention and/or normal brain maturation can alter imaging patterns and convert functional imaging studies to a normal pattern. While the imaging findings provide insight into the disease's neuropathophysiology, no definitive structural or functional pattern defines the disorder from a neuroradiologic perspective.

PMID:34406053 | DOI:10.2214/AJR.21.26316

Different modulation effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in patients with migraine

Wed, 08/18/2021 - 18:00

J Transl Med. 2021 Aug 17;19(1):354. doi: 10.1186/s12967-021-03024-9.


BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may relieve symptoms of migraineurs. Frequency is one of the key stimulation parameters. The aim of this study is to investigate the modulation effect of taVNS frequency on the descending pain modulation system (DPMS) in patients with migraine.

METHODS: Twenty-four episodic migraineurs without aura (21 females) were recruited for the single-blind, crossover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Each participant attended two separate fMRI scan sessions, one for 1 Hz and another for 20 Hz taVNS, in a random order. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was applied using the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) as the region of interest.

RESULTS: Compared with the pre-taVNS resting state, continuous 1 Hz taVNS (during) produced a significant increase in functional connectivity between the PAG and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC), right precuneus, left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left cuneus. Compared with 20 Hz taVNS, 1 Hz taVNS produced greater PAG connectivity increases with the MCC, right precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A significant negative correlation was observed between the number of migraine attacks in the previous 4 weeks and the PAG-MCC functional connectivity in the pre-taVNS resting-state before 1 Hz taVNS.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that taVNS with different frequencies may produce different modulation effects on the descending pain modulation system, demonstrating the important role of stimulation frequency in taVNS treatment.

PMID:34404427 | DOI:10.1186/s12967-021-03024-9

Erythritol and xylitol differentially impact brain networks involved in appetite regulation in healthy volunteers

Wed, 08/18/2021 - 18:00

Nutr Neurosci. 2021 Aug 18:1-15. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2021.1965787. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: There is a growing consensus that sugar consumption should be reduced and the naturally occurring, low-calorie sweeteners xylitol and erythritol are gaining popularity as substitutes, but their effect on brain circuitry regulating appetite is unknown.

AIM: The study's objective was to examine the effects of the two sweeteners on cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and resting functional connectivity in brain networks involved in appetite regulation, and test whether these effects are related to gut hormone release.

METHODS: The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Twenty volunteers received intragastric (ig) loads of 50g xylitol, 75g erythritol, 75g glucose dissolved in 300mL tap water or 300mL tap water. Resting perfusion and blood oxygenation level-dependent data were acquired to assess rCBF and functional connectivity. Blood samples were collected for determination of CCK, PYY, insulin and glucose.

RESULTS: We found: (i) xylitol, but not erythritol, increased rCBF in the hypothalamus, whereas glucose had the opposite effect; (ii) graph analysis of resting functional connectivity revealed a complex pattern of similarities and differences in brain network properties following xylitol, erythritol, and glucose; (iii) erythritol and xylitol induced a rise in CCK and PYY, (iv) erythritol had no and xylitol only minimal effects on glucose and insulin.

CONCLUSION: Xylitol and erythritol have a unique combination of properties: no calories, virtually no effect on glucose and insulin while promoting the release of gut hormones, and impacting appetite-regulating neurocircuitry consisting of both similarities and differences with glucose.

PMID:34404339 | DOI:10.1080/1028415X.2021.1965787

Specificity of anhedonic alterations in resting-state network connectivity and structure: A transdiagnostic approach

Mon, 08/16/2021 - 18:00

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2021 Aug 3;317:111349. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111349. Online ahead of print.


Anhedonia is a prominent characteristic of depression and related pathology that is associated with a prolonged course of mood disturbance and treatment resistance. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia are poorly understood as few studies have disentangled the specific effects of anhedonia from other co-occurring symptoms. Here, we take a transdiagnostic, dimensional approach to distinguish anhedonia alterations from other internalizing symptoms on intrinsic functional brain circuits. 53 adults with varying degrees of anxiety and/or depression completed resting-state fMRI. Neural networks were identified through independent components analysis. Dual regression was used to characterize within-network functional connectivity alterations associated with individual differences in anhedonia. Modulation of between-network functional connectivity by anhedonia was tested using region-of-interest to region-of-interest correlational analyses. Anhedonia was associated with visual network hyperconnectivity and expansion of the visual, dorsal attention, and default networks. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with decreased between-network connectivity among default, salience, dorsal attention, somatomotor, and visual networks. Findings suggest that anhedonia is associated with aberrant connectivity and structural alterations in resting-state networks that contribute to impairments in reward learning, low motivation, and negativity bias characteristic of depression. Results reveal dissociable effects of anhedonia on resting-state network dynamics, characterizing possible neurocircuit mechanisms for intervention.

PMID:34399282 | DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2021.111349

Use of machine learning method on automatic classification of motor subtype of Parkinson's disease based on multilevel indices of rs-fMRI

Mon, 08/16/2021 - 18:00

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2021 Aug 11;90:65-72. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.08.003. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an automatic classifier to distinguish different motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on multilevel indices of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).

METHODS: Ninety-six PD patients, which included thirty-nine postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) subtype and fifty-seven tremor-dominant (TD) subtype, were enrolled and allocated to training and validation datasets with a ratio of 7:3. A total of five types of index, consisting of mean regional homogeneity (mReHo), mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF), degree of centrality (DC), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), and functional connectivity (FC), were extracted. The features were then selected using a two-sample t-test, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) models based on the separate index and multilevel indices were built, and the performance of models was assessed via the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Feature importance was evaluated using Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) values.

RESULTS: The optimal SVM model was obtained based on multilevel rs-fMRI indices, with an AUC of 0.934 in the training dataset and an AUC of 0.917 in the validation dataset. The AUCs of the models based on the separate index were ranged from 0.783 to 0.858 for the training dataset and from 0.713 to 0.792 for the validation dataset. SHAP analysis revealed that functional activity and connectivity in frontal lobe and cerebellum were important features for differentiating PD subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated multilevel rs-fMRI indices could provide more comprehensive information on brain functionalteration. Furthermore, the machine learning method based on multilevel rs-fMRI indices might be served as an alternative approach for automatically classifying clinical subtypes in PD at the individual level.

PMID:34399160 | DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.08.003